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sonatina

sonatina   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Music (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music
Length:
30 words

... [ It. ] , (sonatine [ Fr. ] Little sonata. A short sonata, usually lighter and easier (but several 20th‐cent. sonatinas, e.g. by Ravel , Milhaud , Busoni , etc. are technically...

intrada

intrada   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Music (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music
Length:
34 words

...The Italian equivalent of the French entrée . Used as name for a movt by 18th‐cent. composers and also in 20th cent. (e.g. in Vaughan Williams's Concerto Grosso and Janáček's Glagolitic Mass...

maggot

maggot   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Music (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music
Length:
40 words

...Old English word meaning ‘fanciful idea’, used by 16th‐ and 17th‐cent. composers in titles of instr pieces, often country dances, e.g. ‘My Lady Winwoods Maggot’. Revived in 20th‐cent. by Peter Maxwell Davies in his Miss Donnithorne's Maggot...

contralto

contralto   Reference library

Richard Wigmore

The Oxford Companion to Music

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
79 words

...contralto (from It. contra alto , ‘against the alto’, i.e. contrasting with the high voice; Ger.: Alt ). The lowest female voice, with a range of roughly g to g ″. It is characterized by a dark, rich tone-quality. In the 19th and early 20th centuries most female singers were described as either soprano or contralto, but from the mid-20th century *‘mezzo-soprano’ was increasingly used for lower female voices as the true, deep contralto became ever rarer. —/ Richard...

lyric

lyric   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Music

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
91 words

...by the lyre, but in fact broadened in meaning to denote any kind of accompanied vocal music, e.g. *drame lyrique (Fr., ‘lyric drama’, i.e. opera). 2 A short poem, i.e. not epic or narrative. Composers including Grieg adapted this meaning to music, e.g. Lyric Piece (Ger.: Lyrisches Stück ). 3 A description of a voice-type, e.g. lyric tenor or lyric soprano, meaning somewhere between light and heavy in style. 4 The words of a song, especially used of popular 20th-century song and musical...

Marimba gongs

Marimba gongs   Reference library

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
52 words

... Obscure British term for a metallophone consisting of a series of bell-metal plates fitted with resonators. It is reportedly similar in sound to a glockenspiel but gentler. Possibly the term refers to the ‘steel marimba’ produced by J.C. Deagan, U.G. Leedy, and other percussion manufacturers in the early 20th century. ...

Hehéi

Hehéi   Reference library

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
41 words

...Hehéi . Reed panpipe reported in the early 20th century among the Kobéua, or Cubeo, people of the Uaupés-Caquetâ region of the western Amazon basin. See K.G. Izikowitz : Musical and Other Sound Instruments of the South American Indians (Göteberg, 1935/R1970), 407 only. ...

Toy stop

Toy stop   Reference library

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
58 words

...Toy stop [ toy counter ]. Colloquial term used to refer to the various ‘sound effects’ stops on cinema organs (e.g. sleigh bells, Chinese block, snare drum, klaxon, marimba, etc.). In the 20th century the term also came to be applied to the accessory stops of Renaissance and Baroque organs, such as birdcalls ( Vogelgesang ), drums ( Pauke ), Zimbelstern , Glockenspiel , etc. ...

tombeau

tombeau   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Music

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
47 words

...tombeau (Fr., ‘tomb’, ‘tombstone’). A composition written in memory of someone, e.g. Froberger's Tombeau fait à Paris sur la mort de Monsieur Blancheroche (Blancheroche was a Parisian lutenist who died after falling down the stairs of his home). A 20th-century example is Ravel's Le Tombeau de Couperin...

septet

septet   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Music (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music
Length:
69 words

... ( septette , septuor [ Fr .] ; settimino, septetto [ It .] ; Septett [ Ger .] ) Any combination of 7 performers (usually instr), or any piece of music for such, e.g. Beethoven 's Septet in E♭, Op.20, for vn, vla, hn, cl, bn, vc and db. Famous operatic septets occur in Les Huguenots ( 1836 ) and Les Troyens ( 1863 ) (‘Tout n’est que paix et...

impromptu

impromptu   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Music (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music
Length:
53 words

... [ Fr. ] Literally ‘improvised’ or ‘on the spur of the moment’, but in 19th cent., name given to short piece of instr music, often in song‐like form, e.g. those by Schubert , Chopin , and Schumann . In 20th cent., term has been used by Britten for rev. 3rd movt of his pf...

Sinfonia concertante

Sinfonia concertante   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Music (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music
Length:
62 words

...concertante Term preferred to concerto by Haydn , Mozart , and others, for compositions for more than one solo instrument and orchestra, e.g. Mozart's for violin and viola. In 20th cent. Walton, Williamson, and others have used the term even where only one solo instr is employed, to imply that solo part is more closely integrated with orch than in a ‘display’...

Cavaco

Cavaco   Reference library

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
79 words

...Cavaco (Port.) . A kind of small guitar, used in Portugal and parts of Latin America. It usually has four strings—tuned d ′– g ′– b ′– d ″ or d ′– g ′– b ′– e ″—although some instruments have six strings (or bichords) tuned like a guitar. 20th-century makers included Agostinho de Fretias Menezes of Funchal, Madeira. A small cavaco is called a cavaquinho or a machete . See E.V. de Oliveira: Instrumentos Musicais Populares Portugueses [Portuguese Popular Musical Instruments] (Lisbon, 1966, 2/1982). ...

lyric

lyric   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Music (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music
Length:
82 words

...of all kinds (Fr. drame lyr‐ique ), lyric stage = operatic stage. 2. Short poem, not epic or narrative; comps. such as Grieg adapted this meaning to music, e.g. Lyric Piece , Lyric Suite . 3. Vocal description, e.g. lyric tenor , lyric soprano , somewhere between ‘light’ and ‘heavy’ vocal weight, capable of sustaining long flowing lines. 4. The words of a song in a ‘musical’ or of a popular 20th‐cent....

Viola pomposa

Viola pomposa   Reference library

Howard Mayer Brown

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
231 words

...ascribed to J.S. Bach by several late 18th-century writers, apparently because they confused the viola pomposa with the violoncello piccolo, which Johann Christian Hoffmann of Leipzig made for Bach and for which Bach occasionally wrote. Late in the 20th century the viola pomposa was revived in various forms (e.g. the asymmetric Pelligrini Pomposa by David Rivinus, Portland, OR) and music is again being composed for it. Bibliography U. Drüner : ‘Violoncello piccolo und Viola pomposa bei Johann Sebastian Bach: zu Fragen von Identität und Spielweise...

Schisma

Schisma   Reference library

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
161 words

...calculations. According to J.G. Walther’s Musicalisches Lexicon (Leipzig, 1732), for example, a schisma is taken as half a comma. In 19th- and 20th-century writings (for instance, P. Lichtenthal’s Dizionario e bibliografia della musica , Milan, 1826) it refers to the difference between the Pythagorean and syntonic commas, which is also the difference between a pure major 3rd and a Pythagorean diminished 4th (that is, the amount by which D♯–G is smaller than a pure major 3rd if the 5ths and 4ths G–D–A–E–B–F♯–C♯–G♯–D♯ are pure). This difference, 1.954...

string quartet

string quartet   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Music (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music
Length:
126 words

...of 18th cent. with A. Scarlatti , Tartini , etc., but achieved its flowering with Haydn , Mozart , Beethoven , and Schubert . Since then very many composers have written str qts; leading 20th-cent. And contemp. Examples incl. those by Debussy , Bartók , Lachenmann , and Ferneyhough The 19th and 20th cents. produced many superb qts of performers, e.g. the Joachim, Brodsky, Bohemian, Léner, Griller, Amadeus, Gabrieli, Vermeer, Vegh, Chilingirian, Beethoven, Borodin, Endellion, Alban Berg, Takács, Kronos, Emerson, Arditti, Belcea, Sorrel, and the...

Žvegla

Žvegla   Reference library

Darja Koter

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
157 words

...in nine sizes from about 20 to 52 cm long, with the two longest flutes made in two parts. Žvegle are pitched at g″, f ″, d ♭″, c♯″, b′, a′, g′, f′, and e♭′ respectively and each encompasses two octaves. The cylindrical tube widens at each end; the upper end is closed. The highest of the six equidistant fingerholes lies at the centre of the tube’s length. Žvegle are played alone or in pairs or trios of the same size, and with the trstenke (panpipe) or frajtonerca (accordion). From the 18th century to the second half of the 20th, žvegle were made...

ukulele

ukulele   Reference library

Jeremy Montagu

The Oxford Companion to Music

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
107 words

... taken there by sailors. Being small, lightweight, relatively cheap, and easy to learn, it became very popular in the USA and Europe, especially in the first half of the 20th century, for the strummed accompaniment of singing. The ukulele may be tuned to any key to suit the voice of the singer, with the following basic intervals: descending 5th–ascending major 3rd–ascending 4th (e.g. g′ – c′ – e′ – a′ ). The banjulele is a variant with a *banjo head instead of the guitar-shaped resonator, tuned in the same way. Jeremy...

narrator

narrator   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Music (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music
Length:
109 words

...in recit. Among the first works to use a narrator was Monteverdi 's dramatic madrigal Il combattimento di Tancredi e Clorinda ( 1624 ). In the Passion settings of the 17th and 18th cents. the narrator is often called the Evangelist, e.g, in Bach 's St Matthew Passion . Nar are used in many 20th‐cent. works, e.g. Stravinsky 's The Soldier's Tale , Vaughan Williams's An Oxford Elegy , and Honegger 's Le Roi David . The Male and Female Ch in The Rape of Lucretia ( 1946 ) act as...

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