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G-20

G-20   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
6 words

...-20 Abbreviation of Group of...

G20

G20   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
81 words

...20 A state-led economic and financial council of wealthy nations consisting of the finance ministers and central bank governors of nineteen countries from around the world, plus the European Union. These major economies represent around 90 per cent of global GDP, 80 per cent of global trade, and two thirds of the world’s population. Founded in 2008 it meets semi-annually to discuss the international financial system and promote financial stability and trade. http://www.g20.org/en Official website of the G20 2012 Mexico...

G20

G20   Quick reference

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
284 words

...its policy effectiveness in comparison to the G7/8 is minor. Whereas the G7 has an established history of delivering a number of significant global initiatives, the G20 remains fairly stagnate and ineffective in its ability to generate dynamic global policy initiatives and general consensus. That said, the G20 does offer a unique forum to tackle global collective action problems. Given that the G20 represents two-thirds of the world’s population and most of its economic viability, it has built-in potential to be a meaningful global policy forum, which could...

G-20

G-20   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...-20 ( Group of Twenty ) A group of twenty of the most important economies on the planet. It includes nineteen independent countries along with the European Union: Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France † , Germany † , India, Indonesia, Italy † , Japan, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Turkey, United Kingdom † , United States, European Union. † = also a member of the...

G-20 and Multilateral Economic Cooperation

G-20 and Multilateral Economic Cooperation   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,644 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the G-20 is a major advance from the time when there was little communication, and much acrimony, between the G-8 and the G-77. At this stage the issue really is monitoring and assessing whether the general direction of G-20 member country policies is heading in a mutually consistent and agreed fashion over the medium to long term, and how the G-20 processes can help countries navigate their domestic legislative, regulatory, and judicial processes such that mutually agreed policies are adopted. It is important to bear in mind that commitments in the G-20 are...

G5; G7; G8; G10; G11; G20; G77

G5; G7; G8; G10; G11; G20; G77   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Finance and Banking (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...5; G7; G8; G10; G11; G20; G77 Abbreviations for Group of Five ; Group of Seven ; Group of Eight ; Group of 10 ; Group of 11 ; Group of 77 ....

G-20

G-20   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Abbreviations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Language reference
Length:
7 words

...-20 Group of 20 (leading international...

G20

G20 abbreviation   Quick reference

Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
14 words
G20

G20 abbreviation   Quick reference

New Oxford American Dictionary (3 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
13 words
The Twentieth Century

The Twentieth Century   Quick reference

Brian M. Short

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,083 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...20th‐century urban areas is now being explored. Post‐ 1929 social welfare and social services material is perhaps under‐utilized, but the limitations imposed by the Data Protection Act must be recognized. The fledgling 20th‐century planning system has left various records, but, in the absence of binding central legislation before 1947 , these were sporadically distributed across different localities. Strategic planning before 1947 produced various ad hoc schemes of land use zoning and permitted uses. Development Plans were prepared after 1947 (e.g....

20c The History of the Book in Britain from 1914

20c The History of the Book in Britain from 1914   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
3,991 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Yet, for all its continuities, the British book in the 20 th and early 21 st centuries has proved itself distinctive: thoroughly engaged with deep changes in society, heavily market-oriented, and occasionally iconic both in form and in content. Bibliography D. Athill , Stet (2000) E. de Bellaigue , British Book Publishing as a Business since the 1960s (2004) C. Bloom , Bestsellers (2002) P. Buitenhuis , The Great War of Words (1987) J. Carey , The Intellectuals and the Masses (1992) G. Clark and A. Phillips , Inside Book Publishing , 4e...

Surnames

Surnames   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,649 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...refer to as a ‘non‐paternity event’—illegitimacy or change of name—and, in cases of more than one origin of a surname, it can separate the various families. The main area of contention is where 20–50 per cent of a random sample have a common ancestor and it is not clear whether the rest have ancestors who were illegitimate or who changed their name (e.g. when a widowed mother remarried) or whether the rest are descended from separate bearers of the same name. The question of single or plural origins for distinctive surnames often remains unanswered. DNA...

26 The History of the Book in the Nordic Countries

26 The History of the Book in the Nordic Countries   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,145 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...stimulated the rapid expansion of publishing across the country. One particularly influential house was that of *Bonnier , which published Strindberg’s works and grew during the 20 th century into a major media group. Technical, economic, and social developments made books widely affordable. Entertaining literature was consumed in large quantities, and new foreign novels by e.g. August Lafontaine , Scott , Dickens , and Dumas were translated. Some were *serialized in newspapers, others launched in cheap editions, often through subscription sales, by...

25 The History of the Book in Switzerland

25 The History of the Book in Switzerland   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
1,936 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...20 th century, book production in Switzerland increased from about 1,000 titles to almost 14,000 per year. Just over four-fifths of the books published at the end of the 20 th century appeared in one of the national languages: 59 per cent in German, 18 per cent in French, 3 per cent in Italian, and 0.6 per cent in Rhaeto-Romanic, much of the rest being published in English. Yet these account for only about 30 per cent of the books on sale in Switzerland, with roughly 70 per cent being of foreign origins. Among Swiss publishing houses established in the 20...

18 Theories of Text, Editorial Theory, and Textual Criticism

18 Theories of Text, Editorial Theory, and Textual Criticism   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,963 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...where the documents were demonstrably corrupt (i.e. resistant to interpretation by appeal to contextual knowledge) anticipates key features of the *Greg – *Bowers position in 20 th -century textual theory. The most important contribution to classical and biblical editing was the extended formulation of stemmatics by *Lachmann ( 1793–1853 ), and his forerunners F. A. Wolf , K. G. Zumpt , and F. W. Ritschl . For textual traditions where the original MSS are lost, even sophisticated practitioners lacked a clear and overriding principle for understanding...

15 Children’s Books

15 Children’s Books   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
4,997 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of printing. By modern standards, few concessions were made to children as readers. Production was dominated by didactic works, including Latin *grammars (by Donatus and others), courtesy literature or *conduct books (e.g. Robert Grosseteste ’s Puer ad Mensam ), moral instruction (e.g. Disticha Catonis ), or *anthologies (e.g. Geoffroy de la Tour Landry’s Book of the Knight of the Tower , which *Caxton printed in 1484 ). In time, illustrated abridgements and adaptations of adult texts intended to teach children began to appear. Notable examples...

37 The History of the Book in Sub-Saharan Africa

37 The History of the Book in Sub-Saharan Africa   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,157 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...publishers (e.g. Editora Escolar, Maputo, 1993 ) to emerge. Elsewhere in the Southern African Development Community, printing was introduced to Île de France (Mauritius) by the French in 1767 , and subsequently reached Madagascar (where the LMS also established a press, in 1826 ). Madagascar is its own special case, unusual among former French colonies in having been a unified kingdom with a single written language (Malagasy, related to Malay) before colonization. It also possessed a history of writing in Arabic script. Throughout the early 20 th century,...

30 The History of the Book in Austria

30 The History of the Book in Austria   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
1,528 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...in such monasteries as Salzburg (then belonging to Bavaria) and *Kremsmünster , both 8 th -century foundations, and later at Admont, St Florian, and elsewhere. In 1500 , the population of the area corresponding to present-day Austria was about 1.5 million. Vienna had c .20,000 inhabitants, Schwaz 15,000, Salzburg 8,000, Graz 7,000, Steyr 6,000, and Innsbruck 5,000. At that date, Vienna’s university (founded 1365 ), was a centre of humanist scholarship. The first printer in the city was Stephan Koblinger , who arrived from Vicenza in 1482 and...

12 The Economics of Print

12 The Economics of Print   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
7,040 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...a phenomenon that had important commercial and cultural implications. Fundamental structural changes paved the way for the future direction of the publishing industry and became integral to 20 th -century developments in the horizontal integration of the industry, by which smaller firms merged to form larger publishing houses that commanded a greater market share. 9 The 20 th century The growth in book production in the 50 years before World War I was higher than the growth in the reading public—a ‘catching-up’ after the setbacks of the mid- 1860s . The...

Historic Churches

Historic Churches   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,420 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...estate churches were invariably Gothic. During the second half of the 20th century a wide range of modern styles were used. Towers and spires vary in style according to the period of their construction and the locality in which they were reared. In 9th‐century Italy the casting of bells heavier than hitherto necessitated the construction of separate belfry towers either of timber or of stone. By the 10th century the fashion had spread to England. In some surviving Anglo‐Saxon churches, e.g. Monkwearmouth (County Durham) and Deerhurst (Gloucestershire), earlier...

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