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drink-driving

drink-driving n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...is 80mg/dl (.08g/dl), often rather misleadingly referred to as .08 per cent blood alcohol concentration. It equates to roughly four units of alcohol (half pints of beer, glasses of wine, or measures of spirits) taken by an average 150 lb (68 kg) person in quick succession, and this is also the figure recommended by the American College of Emergency Physicians ( ACEP ) as per se evidence of driving while impaired. In some countries, including several members of the European Union, the drink-drive limit is 50mg/dl, and in Sweden it is 20mg/dl. See also ...

probability learning

probability learning n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...on a randomized proportion of trials. In humans, this is usually achieved with variations of the light-guessing experiment first described by the US psychologist Lloyd G(irton) Humphreys ( 1913–2003 ) in the Journal of Experimental Psychology in 1939 . An observer tries to predict which of two light bulbs will light up on each trial, and the bulbs are lit up randomly, 80 per cent left and 20 per cent right, for example. People typically began by distributing their guesses roughly equally between the two options, then they increase the frequency of choosing...

Developing Athletes in the Context of Sport and Performance Psychology

Developing Athletes in the Context of Sport and Performance Psychology   Reference library

Luc J. Martin, David J. Hancock, and Jean Côté

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...to influence an athlete’s character (e.g., development), participation (e.g., commitment), and team-level performance. In summary, peers, both through dyadic quality relationships and the team more broadly, are important considerations for athlete development. Family. Considering that the family represents one of the more prominent social institutions for many children, it is typically their first point of socialization into sport (e.g., Côté, 1999 ). Within the family unit, parents (e.g., Kirk, 2005 ) and siblings (e.g., Raudsepp & Viira, 2000 ) represent...

Cognitive-Behavioral Theory in Sport and Performance Psychology

Cognitive-Behavioral Theory in Sport and Performance Psychology   Reference library

Faye F. Didymus

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...149–169. Si, G. , & Lee, H. (2011). Is it so hard to change? The case of a Hong Kong Olympic silver medallist. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology , 6 , 319–330. Thomas, O. , Maynard, I. , & Hanton, S. (2007). Intervening with athletes during the time leading up to competition: Theory to practice II. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology , 19 , 398–418. Turner, M. J. (2016a). Rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT), irrational and rational beliefs, and the mental health of athletes. Frontiers in Psychology , 20 . Turner, M. J...

Prevalence, Measurement, and Experience of Eating Disorders in Sport and Retirement

Prevalence, Measurement, and Experience of Eating Disorders in Sport and Retirement   Reference library

Trent A. Petrie

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...(e.g., Anderson & Petrie, 2012 ; Chatterton & Petrie, 2013 ; Martinsen et al., 2010 ); far fewer athletes (i.e., less than 2.0%) may use more extreme behaviors (e.g., vomiting, laxatives) to control their weight and body size/shape. Regarding food intake, higher percentages of female versus male athletes restrict, though both genders report dieting at rates that can range up to 15% (e.g., Anderson & Petrie, 2012 ; Chatterton & Petrie, 2013 ). Conclusion Male and female athletes, particularly those at higher competitive levels (e.g., college,...

A Holistic and Mental Health Perspective on Transitioning Out of Elite Sport

A Holistic and Mental Health Perspective on Transitioning Out of Elite Sport   Reference library

Paul Wylleman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
5,852 words
Illustration(s):
1

...& Alfermann, 1999 ). Furthermore, adjustment to post-athletic life was found to be mediated by factors such as the degree of preparation and voluntariness for ending one’s athletic career (e.g., Alfermann & Gross, 1997 ; McPherson, 1980 ; Webb, Nasco, Riley, & Headrick, 1998 ; Wheeler et al., 1996 ). Significantly, research also suggested that approximately 20% of elite athletes may experience psychological problems in relation to their retirement ( Lavallee et al., 2000 ). With athletic retirement in the 1990s being conceptualized as a process of transition...

Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, and Anxiety

Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, and Anxiety   Reference library

Steven J. Petruzzello

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...g., lightning), situational type (e.g., tight spaces), blood/injection/injury type (e.g., needles). • Accompanied by a variety of physical symptoms (e.g., heart palpitations, sweating, trembling, shortness of breath or a smothering feeling, chest pain/discomfort, nausea/abdominal discomfort) and psychological symptoms (e.g., a feeling of choking, sense of things being unreal, fear of losing control, fear of dying) • More than twice as common in females than males SOCIAL ANXIETY DISORDER (SOCIAL PHOBIA): Marked, persistent anxiety in social situations (e.g.,...

Relaxation and Recovery in Sport and Performance

Relaxation and Recovery in Sport and Performance   Reference library

Maximilian Pelka and Michael Kellmann

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...Sports Medicine , 33 , 873–879. Baumann, S. (2006). Entspannungstraining [Relaxation training]. Psychologie im Sport . Aachen, Germany: Meyer & Meyer. Birrer, D. , & Morgan, G. (2010). Psychological skills training as a way to enhance an athlete’s performance in high-intensity sports . Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports , 20 , 78–87. Borg, G. (1998). Borg’s Perceived Exertion and Pain Scale . Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Botterill, C. , & Wilson, C. (2002). Overtraining: Emotional and interdisciplinary dimensions. In...

Exercise and Mental Health Benefits

Exercise and Mental Health Benefits   Reference library

Aaron L. Slusher and Edmund O. Acevedo

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

..., 20 , 339–357. Cunnane, S. , Nugent, S. , Roy, M. , Courchesne-Loyer, A. , Croteau, E. , Tremblay, S. , … Paquet, N. (2011). Brain fuel metabolism, aging, and Alzheimer’s disease. Nutrition , 27 , 3–20. Da Silva, M. A. , Singh-Manoux, A. , Brunner, E. J. , Kaffashian, S. , Shipley, M. J. , Kivimäki, M. , & Nabi, H. (2012). Bidirectional association between physical activity and symptoms of anxiety and depression: The Whitehall II study. European Journal of Epidemiology , 27 , 537–546. De Castro, J. M. , & Duncan, G. (1985)....

Psychological Responses to Sport Injury

Psychological Responses to Sport Injury   Reference library

Britton W. Brewer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...L. , & Jones, G. (1992). Emotional effects of sports injuries: Implications for physiotherapists. Physiotherapy , 78 , 762–770. Penpraze, V. , & Mutrie, N. (1999). Effectiveness of goal setting in an injury rehabilitation programme for increasing patient understanding and compliance [Abstract]. British Journal of Sports Medicine , 33 , 60. Podlog, L. , & Eklund, R. C. (2005). Return to sport after serious injury: A retrospective examination of motivation and psychological outcomes. Journal of Sport Rehabilitation , 14 , 20–34. Podlog, L. , &...

Psychoneuroendocrinology and Physical Activity

Psychoneuroendocrinology and Physical Activity   Reference library

Anthony C. Hackney and Eser Ağgön

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...to stress in women: Effects of aging and fitness. Psychoneuroendocrinology , 30 , 392–402. Tremblay, M. S. , Chu, S. Y. , & Mureika, R. (1995). Methodological and statistical considerations for exercise-related hormone evaluations. Sports Medicine , 20 (2), 90–108. Tsigo, C. , & Chrousos, G. P. (2002). Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, neuroendocrine factors and stress. Journal of Psychosomatic Research , 53 , 865–871. Viru, A. (1985). Hormonal ensemble in exercise: Hormones in muscular activity (Vol. 1, pp. 34–96). Boca Raton: CRC Press...

History of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology in Europe

History of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology in Europe   Reference library

Stiliani “Ani” Chroni and Frank Abrahamsen

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...and exercise psychology, while their research is based on strong international collaborations (e.g., Haapala et al., 2014 ; Rovio, Arvinen-Barrow, Weigand, Eskola, & Lintunen, 2010 ). In Finland, research in health sciences and psychology is also conducted at the University of Tampere. The close borders between European countries seem to offer opportunities for relocations. As such, Natalia Stambulova and Yuri Hanin, both natives of Russia who more than 20 years ago moved to Sweden and Finland, respectively, offered substantial advancements in research...

Sport Psychology Considerations in Intercollegiate Athletics in the United States

Sport Psychology Considerations in Intercollegiate Athletics in the United States   Reference library

Christopher M. Bader and Scott B. Martin

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
9,621 words
Illustration(s):
3

...to (a) the reasons services are sought (e.g., emotional or sport performance issues); (b) concerns about privacy and confidentiality; (c) the SPC’s knowledge, sport science and psychology training (e.g., exercise science or counseling psychology), and past sport experience; and (d) where the session is conducted (e.g., psychology clinic, physical education department, or athletic department). For example, SPCs located in counseling centers or psychology clinics are sometimes perceived as mental health professionals (e.g., counselors, clinical psychologists,...

Evaluation of Psychological Interventions in Sport and Exercise Settings

Evaluation of Psychological Interventions in Sport and Exercise Settings   Reference library

Rebecca A. Zakrajsek and Jedediah E. Blanton

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...the persistent tension that has existed between (a) proponents of academic and applied approaches to sport psychology, and (b) professionals trained in departments of kinesiology and psychology” (p. 20). In discussing sport contexts, the focus here is on the research employing an educational approach to PST based on the premise that participants (e.g., athletes, coaches) are basically mentally healthy and have the psychological skills needed to succeed. SEP professionals, therefore, help participants learn and optimize psychological skills and strategies...

Psychosocial Measurement Issues in Sport and Exercise Settings

Psychosocial Measurement Issues in Sport and Exercise Settings   Reference library

Gershon Tenenbaum and Edson Filho

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
11,421 words
Illustration(s):
5

...Tenenbaum, G. , & Kamata, A. (2012). Idiographic approaches in sport. In G. Tenenbaum , R. C. Eklund , & A. Kamata (Eds.), Measurement in sport and exercise psychology . Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Ekkekakis, P. (2012). Affect, mood, and emotion. In G. Tenenbaum , R. C. Eklund , & A. Kamata (Eds.), Measurement in sport and exercise psychology (pp. 321–332). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Eklund, R. C. (1998). With regard to the Social Physique Anxiety Scale (conceptually speaking). Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology , 20 (2),...

Psychological Considerations for Paralympic Athletes

Psychological Considerations for Paralympic Athletes   Reference library

Jeffrey Martin

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
9,838 words
Illustration(s):
1

...about precompetition issues (e.g., poor fitness), poor competition preparation (e.g., malfunctioning equipment), on-court worries (e.g., playing out of position), after-competition stress (e.g., losing), negative aspects of a major event (e.g., not sleeping well), poor team cohesion (e.g., leadership vacuum), negative coaching behaviors (e.g., demeaning comments), relationship issues (e.g., concern over partner being alone), the demands of sport (e.g., cost of newest technology), and the lack of disability awareness (e.g., inaccessible bathrooms and...

Arousal Control in Sport

Arousal Control in Sport   Reference library

Martin Turner and Marc Jones

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

... Parfitt, C. G. , Jones, J. G. , & Hardy, L. (1990). Multidimensional anxiety and performance. In J. G. Jones & L. Hardy (Eds.), Stress and performance in sport (pp. 43–80). Chichester, UK: Wiley. Prapavessis, H. , Grove, J. R. , McNair, P. J. , & Cable, N. T. (1992). Self-regulation training, state anxiety, and sport performance: A psychophysiological case study. The Sport Psychologist , 6 , 213–229. Raglin, J. (1992) Anxiety and sport performance. In J. O. Holloszy (Ed.), Exercise & sport science reviews (Vol. 20, pp. 243–274). New...

Research Methods in Sport and Exercise Psychology

Research Methods in Sport and Exercise Psychology   Reference library

Sicong Liu and Gershon Tenenbaum

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...study research . London, UK: SAGE. Tenenbaum, G. (2003). Expert athletes: An integrated approach to decision making. In J. L. Starkes & K. A. Ericsson (Eds.), Expert performance in sports: Advances in research on sport expertise (pp. 191–218). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Tenenbaum, G. , Edmonds, W. A. , & Eccles, D. W. (2008). Emotions, coping strategies, and performance: A conceptual framework for defining affect-related performance zones. Military Psychology, 20 (S1), S11–S37. Tenenbaum, G. , Eklund, R. C. (June 2019). Handbook of...

Psychological Considerations of Adolescents in Sport and Performance

Psychological Considerations of Adolescents in Sport and Performance   Reference library

Katherine A. Tamminen and Courtney Braun

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
14,022 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Coping processes in sport. In J. Thatcher , M. Jones , & D. Lavallee (Eds.), Coping and emotion in sport (pp. 2–33). New York, NY: Routledge. Rutten, E. A. , Schuengel, C. , Dirks, E. , Stams, G. , Biesta, G. , & Hoeksma, J. B. (2011). Predictors of antisocial and prosocial behavior in an adolescent sports context . Social Development , 20 , 294–315. Ryan, R. M. , & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being . American Psychology , 55 , 68–78. Sagar,...

Motivation in Sport and Performance

Motivation in Sport and Performance   Reference library

Glyn C. Roberts, Christina G. L. Nerstad, and P. Nicolas Lemyre

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

..., 153–164. Ommundsen, Y. , Roberts, G. C. , Lemyre, P. N. , & Treasure, D. (2003). Perceived motivational climate in male youth soccer: Relations to social–moral functioning, sportspersonship and team norm perceptions. Psychology of Sport and Exercise , 4 , 397–413. Papaioannou, A. (1994). Development of a questionnaire to measure achievement orientations in physical education. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport , 65 , 11–20. Papaioannou, A. G. , Ziurbanos, N. , Krommidas, C. , & Ampatatzoglou, G. (2012). The place of achievement goals...

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