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doubting

doubting   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
349 words

...of seriously maintaining a position of philosophical scepticism was highlighted by G. E. Moore in the 20th century, and earlier by David Hume . Hume observed that ‘Nature is always too strong for principle, and though a Pyrrhonian may throw himself and others into a momentary … confusion by his profound reasonings, the first and most trivial event in life will put to flight all his doubts’ ( Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding , 1748 ). (Published 1987) John G....

a priori

a priori   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
307 words

...cause’, were not analytic but nevertheless had the hallmarks of being a priori. The central question that his philosophy addressed was how such synthetic a priori truths were possible, whereas the strategy of his 20th-century empiricist critics was to argue that there are no a priori truths that are not analytic. (Published 1987) J. E. Tiles Frege, G. (1959). The Foundations of Arithmetic . Trans. J. L. Austin , section 3. Kant, I. (1929). The Critique of Pure Reason . Trans. N. Kemp-Smith , Preface and...

gestalt theory

gestalt theory   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,784 words
Illustration(s):
1

...The Gestalt School of psychological thought originated in Germany early in the 20th century (for a comprehensive review, see Koffka 1935 ). It is best known for its theoretical and empirical contributions to understanding the organization of perceptual experience, including the nature of perceived groups, objects, parts, properties, and the relations among them, but was extended to address issues concerning problem solving (e.g. Köhler 1925 ) and social psychology (e.g. Lewin 1951 ). Before the advent of gestalt theory, ideas about perceptual...

pattern recognition

pattern recognition   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,614 words
Illustration(s):
7

...D. G. (2001). Pattern Classification and Scene Analysis (2nd edn.). Fu, K. S. (1983). ‘ A step towards unification of syntactic and statistical pattern recognition ’. IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence , 5/2. Jain, A. K. , Duin, R. P. W. , and Mao, J. (2000). ‘ Statistical pattern recognition: a review ’. IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence , 22/1. Perlovsky, L. I. (1998). ‘ Conundrum of combinatorial complexity ’. IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence , 20/6....

intelligence differences

intelligence differences   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,455 words

...conducted throughout the 20th century. He gathered data from the laboratories of many famous researchers, often those with disparate views about the structure of human intelligence, and submitted them to a common mode of factor analysis. He found that almost all studies found a general intelligence factor, often accounting for 40–50 per cent of the variance in test battery scores. Next, he found that there were separable, but correlated, ‘group factors’ of intelligence. These are mental capabilities less general than g , such as reasoning, verbal...

phobias

phobias   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,003 words

...(apart from blood/injury phobia) are not strongly inherited and most people do not develop them even when exposed to snakes, spiders, etc. Some phobias defy any evolutionary explanation (e.g. feather phobia). Phobias must be ‘learned’, with evolutionary genetic influences making certain phobias more likely. Extensive experiments on humans and animals since the mid-20th century have drawn on theories of classical (Pavlovian) and operant conditioning and social learning to shed light on how this learning occurs. The process in real life is complex and may...

cognitive control and consciousness

cognitive control and consciousness   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,410 words

...i.e. consciousness of maintaining the task requirements, supporting the processing of information relevant to the goals of the current task, and suppressing irrelevant information ( van Veen and Carter 2006 ). During the last quarter of the 20th century, the term control was contrasted with * automaticity (e.g. Schneider and Shiffrin 1977 ). Automatic processes were defined as being effortless, unconscious, and involuntary, and the terms unconscious and automatic were used by some interchangeably, leading to the conclusion that control should...

Charles Bonnet syndrome

Charles Bonnet syndrome   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
807 words

...publication in full at the beginning of the 20th century ( Flournoy 1902 ). In 1756 , three years after a successful operation to remove a cataract in his left eye, Lullin developed a gradual deterioration of vision in both eyes which continued despite an operation in 1757 to remove a right eye cataract (his visual loss was probably related to age‐related macular disease). The hallucinations occurred from February to September of 1758 when he was aged 89. They ranged from the relatively simple and mundane (e.g. storms of whirling atomic particles,...

sex differences in intelligence 2

sex differences in intelligence 2   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
563 words

...2004) Richard Lynn Ankney, C. D. (1992). ‘ Sex differences in relative brain size: the mismeasure of woman, too? ’ Intelligence , 16. Jensen, A. R. (1998). The G Factor . Lynn, R. (1999). ‘ Sex differences in intelligence and brain size: a developmental theory ’. Intelligence , 27. Mackintosh, N. J. (1998). IQ and Human Intelligence . Nyborg, H. (2003). ‘Sex differences in g’. In Nyborg, H. (ed.), The Scientific Study of General Intelligence...

migraine

migraine   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
989 words

...dysfunction (‘vertebrobasilar migraine’), when there is dysfunction of the nerves that control eye movements (‘ophthalmoplegic migraine’), or when there is a unilateral weakness of the limbs (familial ‘hemiplegic migraine’). The disturbances, sensory or otherwise, usually last for 20–30 minutes and are followed by a headache which, although often unilateral, may involve both sides of the head, and which is often severe and pulsating in character. When both the sensory disturbances and the pain are unilateral they can involve the same or opposite sides of the...

conscious resting state

conscious resting state   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
509 words

...areas also show among the most important decreases of activity in various states of transient or permanent unawareness such as vegetative state, slow wave *sleep , general *anaesthesia , or absence seizures ( Laureys 2005 ). In the average adult brain, the brain accounts for 20% of the oxygen consumption of the body, despite the fact that it represents only 2% of body weight. Relative to this high rate of ongoing or basal metabolism, the amount of dedicated task‐related activity is relatively small. These findings led to the concept of a ‘default mode’...

attention, neural basis

attention, neural basis   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
3,590 words
Illustration(s):
5

...in the primary visual cortex of alert monkeys ’. Neuron , 22. Kastner, S. and Ungerleider, L. G. (2000). ‘ Mechanisms of visual attention in the human cortex ’. Annual Review of Neuroscience , 23. ——, De Weerd, P. , Desimone, R. , and Ungerleider, L. G. (1998). ‘ Mechanisms of directed attention in the human extrastriate cortex as revealed by functional MRI ’. Science , 282. ——, Pinsk, M. A. , De Weerd, P. , Desimone, R. , and Ungerleider, L. G. (1999). ‘ Increased activity in human visual cortex during directed attention in the absence of...

religious experience

religious experience   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,175 words

...about, at least in part, by the effects of the elimination or intervention of sensory nerve impulses (deafferentation). Throughout the 20th century and today there are leading defenders of the cognitive value of religious experience. Early proponents of a non‐naturalist account of religious experiences include Rudolf Otto ( 1869–1937 ), Evelyn Underhill ( 1875–1941 ), and W. T. Stace ( 1886–1967 ). Since the mid‐20th century, the prominent defenders of the view that religious experience counts as evidence against naturalism and in favour of some...

contrastive analysis

contrastive analysis   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,560 words

...of intelligent unconscious processes. This did not become commonplace until the late 20th century. Table 1. Some widely studied polarities between matched conscious and unconscious phenomena (from Baars 2003) Conscious Unconscious Explicit cognition Implicit cognition Immediate memory Longer‐term memory Novel, informative, and significant events Routine, predictable, and non‐significant events Attended information Unattended information Focal contents Fringe contents (e.g. familiarity) Declarative memory (facts, etc.) Procedural memory (skills, etc.)...

after‐effects, perceptual

after‐effects, perceptual   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,772 words
Illustration(s):
2

...constitutes a gender‐neutral face, and the two photographs on either side of the neutral face are versions biased toward female (left) and toward male (right). Maintain fixation on the right‐hand photograph for 20 s or so and then look at the middle photograph—for the first few seconds, it should look more ‘female’. Next, adapt for 20 s to the left‐hand photograph and notice how the appearance of the gender‐neutral face now looks more ‘male’. Photographs courtesy of Tamara Watson and Colin Clifford, University of Sydney. Perceptual after‐effects may...

gamma oscillations

gamma oscillations   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
3,806 words
Illustration(s):
5

...correlates of awareness in humans is the so‐called * attentional blink . This paradigm involves the rapid serial visual presentation of stimuli such as digits, letters, words, or pictures, typically at a fixed location with presentation frequencies ranging from 3 to 20 items per second (cf. Fig. G4). The notion of ‘attentional blink’ refers to a behaviourally well‐described transient reduction of attention, which can occur if more than one target has to be processed in such a series of stimuli. In this dual‐task situation, a second target stimulus often goes...

neuronal global workspace

neuronal global workspace   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,770 words
Illustration(s):
1

...conscious‐level processing. These areas included five sets of brain systems (Dehaene et al. 1998 ): high‐level perceptual processors (e.g. inferotemporal cortex), evaluation circuits (e.g. amygdala, cingulate, and orbitofrontal regions), planning and motor intention systems (e.g. prefrontal and premotor areas), long‐term memory circuits (e.g. hippocampus and parahippocampal regions), and attention‐orienting circuits (e.g. posterior parietal cortices). Thanks to the tight interconnections of these five systems, perceptual information which is consciously...

Gage, Phineas

Gage, Phineas (1813–60)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
644 words

...planning, decision making, socialization and the control of emotional expression had to await the 20th century, for the behavioural effects of frontal lobotomy and the advent of neuropsychological and neuroimaging techniques. Although his behaviour could not be understood in his own time, Phineas Gage has become the classical example of the psychological effects of damage to the ventromedial frontal cortex. (Published 2004) Stuart Butler Barker, F. G. , II (1995). ‘ Phineas among the phrenologists: the American crowbar case and nineteenth-century...

psychosomatic disease: philosophical and psychological aspects

psychosomatic disease: philosophical and psychological aspects   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
814 words

...a medical view . Charles Rycroft Bakan, D. (1968). Disease, Pain, and Sacrifice . Dunbar, F. (1954). Emotions and Bodily Changes . Groddeck, G. (1923). Das Buch vom Es . (Eng. trans., The Book of the It, 1935). Grossman, C. M. , and Grossman, S. (1965). The Wild Analyst . Reich, W. (1960). Wilhelm Reich: Selected Writings . Ed. M. B. Higgins . Strube, M. J. (1991). Type A Behaviour . Totman, R. G. (1979). Social Causes of Illness...

physicalism

physicalism   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,723 words

...connections with a religious world view, to atheism. In the 20th century analytic philosophy the idea achieved considerable prominence again, finding support in such figures as Quine ( 1960 ) and Lewis ( 1994 ). Indeed, it not unreasonable to say that, just as idealism was the metaphysics du jour for the philosophers of the late 19th century, so physicalism has become the metaphysics du jour for the 20th. It may also be that physicalism (or something like it) is implicitly a common part of 20th and 21st century intellectual culture, though this is...

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