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Form 20-F

In the USA, the form required by the Securities and Exchange Commission for the filing of annual results by non-US companies.

Optometry

Optometry   Reference library

Diane D. Edwards

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...came controversies over licensing laws and government regulations. Until the late nineteenth century, the field had no official standards of practice, education, or competency. In 1896 , seeking stricter controls over who could prescribe eyeglasses, Charles F. Prentice and Andrew Jay Cross formed the Optical Society of New York. As other state societies arose, practitioners lobbied legislatures for regulatory statutes. Minnesota imposed the first regulations, in 1901 , and by 1925 all of the states and the District of Columbia had passed such...

Abortion Debates and Science

Abortion Debates and Science   Reference library

Tracy A. Weitz and Carole Joffe

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Synthesis and Analysis of Research Published 1995–2009.” The British Journal of Psychiatry 199, no. 3 (2011): 180–186. Daling, J. R. , K. E. Malone , L. F. Voigt , E. White , and N. S. Weiss . “Risk of Breast Cancer Among Young Women: Relationship to Induced Abortion.” Journal of the National Cancer Institute 86, no. 21 (1994): 1584. Eckholm, E. “New Laws in 6 States Ban Abortions after 20 Weeks.” New York Times , June 26, 2011, p. A10. Fabrizi, L. , R. Slater , A. J. Meek , S. Boyd , S. Olhede , and M. Fitzgerald . “A Shift in Sensory Processing...

Missiles and Rockets

Missiles and Rockets   Reference library

J. D. Hunley

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Tactical Missiles.” AIAA-2011-6941. Paper presented at the AIAA Aviation Technology, Integration, and Operations (ATIO) Conference, Centennial of Naval Aviation Forum, 20–22 September 2011, Virginia Beach, Virginia. NASA, Space Shuttle . “Space Shuttle Program: Spanning 30 Years of Discovery.” http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/main/index.html , no pagination (accessed 20 March 2012). A competent, up-to-date summary of the Space Shuttle program’s history. Sutton, George P. , and Oscar Biblarz . Rocket Propulsion Elements . 8th ed. Hoboken, N...

Machinery and Manufacturing

Machinery and Manufacturing   Reference library

Ross Thomson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Company . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1945. Mowery, David C. , and Nathan Rosenberg . Paths of Innovation: Technological Change in 20th-Century America . Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1998. Nader, John . “The Rise of an Inventive Profession: Learning Effects in the Midwestern Harvester Industry, 1850–1890.” Journal of Economic History 52 (June 1994): 397–408. Noble, David F. America by Design: Science, Technology, and the Rise of Corporate Capitalism . New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1977. Nye, David E. Electrifying America:...

Robots

Robots   Reference library

Lisa Nocks

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...f=false . Roselund, Harold A. Mea ns for Moving Spray Guns or Other Devices through Pre-determined Paths . U.S. 2,344,108. Filed 17 August 1939 and issued 14 March 1944. Accessed 15 January 2012 from http://www.google.com/patents/US2344108 . Rosheim, Mark E. Robot Evolution: The Development of Anthrobotics . New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1994. Ross, Philip E. “Westinghouse Cuts Interest in Robots.” New York Times Business Day , 11 June 1987. Accessed 20 January 2012 from ...

Psychology

Psychology   Reference library

James H. Capshew

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
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Current Version:
2015

...Leary , eds. A Century of Psychology as Science . Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association, 1992. (Originally published 1985.) Massive collection of historical reflections. Miner, Burt G. “The Changing Attitude of American Universities toward Psychology.” Science , 20 (1904): 299–307. Morawski, Jill G. , ed. The Rise of Experimentation in American Psychology . New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1988. Historical case studies from a social constructionist perspective. Neisser, Ulric . Cognitive Psychology . Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall...

Ophthalmology

Ophthalmology   Reference library

James Ravin and Michael F. Marmor

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Otology in 1896 . (Ophthalmology and otology separated amicably in 1979 .) The American Academy of Ophthalmology has become the largest association of eye care providers in the world and sponsors the largest annual ophthalmological conference in the world. In 2012 , it had about 20 thousand U.S. ophthalmologists and 7 thousand international members (American Academy of Ophthalmology, 2012 ). From 1878 to 1971 the section on ophthalmology of the American Medical Association served similar functions as the American Academy of Ophthalmology, but the American...

Radio

Radio   Reference library

Christopher H. Sterling

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...later merged into one provider) and later from terrestrial transmitters. Despite the adoption of a single system, digital radio broadcasting expanded slowly because it required the purchase of special automobile and home receivers, thus remaining a mere niche service (perhaps 20 percent of the total radio audience) well into the second decade of the twenty-first century. Mobility and Distance. Radio lends itself to mobile communication, as well as to great distances. Using radio while on the move originated aboard merchant and naval ships early in the...

Chemistry

Chemistry   Reference library

Anthony N. Stranges

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...bond. Lewis also made Gibbs’s thermodynamics intelligible to chemists. Gibbs’s publications were highly mathematical and lacked concrete examples to illustrate his thermodynamic principles, nor had Gibbs established a following of graduate students to continue his program. For over 20 years Lewis and his Berkeley colleagues, particularly William Giauque ( 1896–1971 ), a future Nobel Prize winner, provided the experimental evidence supporting thermodynamic functions such as Rudolf Clausius’s entropy and Gibbs’s free energy while introducing important new...

Foundations and Health

Foundations and Health   Reference library

Kevin A. Walters

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...exponentially over the next few decades. In 2012 , the NSF listed their annual budget as around $7 billion, which accounted for 20 percent of all federally funded research in U.S. higher education (“NSF at a Glance,” http://www.nsf.gov/ ). In addition, the NIH invested nearly $31 billion dollars in medical research in 2012 . Of that budget, 80 percent went to universities, medical schools, and research institutes in the form of grants (“NIH Budget,” http://www.nih.gov/ ; Anheier and Hammack, 2013 , pp. 75–78). In the face of these ballooning public...

Biotechnology

Biotechnology   Reference library

Robert Bud

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...1991. The best view of the impact on academe of the enthusiasm for industrial genetics. U.S. Office of Technology Assessment . Commercial Biotechnology: An International Analysis . Washington D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1984. http://www.princeton.edu/~ota/ns20/alpha_f.html (accessed 9 April 2012). This report was a key document in making a narrative out of sometimes apparently chaotic diversity. Van Beuzecom, Brigitte , and Anthony Arundel . OECD Biotechnology Statistics 2009 . http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/4/23/42833898.pdf (accessed 9...

Diplomacy (Post-1945), Science and Technology AND

Diplomacy (Post-1945), Science and Technology AND   Reference library

John Krige

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...a domestic political issue and a struggle for global influence that helped propel John F. Kennedy into the White House in 1961 . Recognizing the impact of space spectaculars on “the minds of men everywhere” who were being called upon to choose between “freedom and tyranny,” within months—and shortly after Yuri Gagarin became the first human in space—the new President asked Congress to commit the nation to a manned lunar landing before the decade was out. More modest forms of technology were also enrolled in the psychological propaganda war between the...

Literature and Science

Literature and Science   Reference library

Priscilla Wald

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...about this loss found their most literal expression in a fear of brainwashing following reports of its use on U.S. prisoners during the Korean War. Resulting from research yielding new insight into the workings of the human brain, this form of mind control was especially disturbing in its depiction of an extreme form of the normal processes of socialization, as in the work of the psychiatrist Joost Meerloo, the social psychologist Erik Erikson, and the Hollywood publicist turned author Richard Condon. In his 1959 novel, The Manchurian Candidate ,...

Medicine

Medicine   Reference library

Ronald L. Numbers, Eric Howard Christianson, John Harley Warner, Harry M. Marks, Harry M. Marks, and Naomi Rogers

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...the American revolutionaries offered no evidence that imperial regulations had inhibited colonial medical practice. This simple fact of noninterference is important for a general understanding of health care in colonial America. Indeed, during the Colonial Era, perhaps fewer than 20 percent of all identified medical practitioners were immigrants. Of these, most came from provincial England, where the regulatory powers of London’s medical guilds, such as the Royal College of Physicians, were relatively weak. Few were college or medical-school graduates,...

Diabetes

Diabetes   Reference library

Arleen Marcia Tuchman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Diabetes Association . New York: American Diabetes Association, 1990. ADA’s own account of the first 50 years of its existence. Barnett, Donald , and Leo Krall . “The History of Diabetes.” In Joslin’s Diabetes Mellitus , edited by C. Ronald Kahn et al., 14th ed., pp. 1–20. New York: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2005. Concise overview of major moments in the history of diabetes, from the early twentieth century to the present. Bliss, Michael . The Discovery of Insulin , Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982. Classic story about insulin’s discovery...

Oceanography

Oceanography   Reference library

Craig Biegel

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...scientific knowledge, showing the flag, and increasing commercial prospects. However, when the expedition returned almost four years later, it generated little interest in the governmental or business community. Some of the specimens and data were lost, and the expedition’s 20-volume report, which included sections on hydrography and marine animals, was limited to one hundred copies. Shortly thereafter, however, new American governmental activities threatened British dominance in physical oceans science. The peak of nineteenth-century American...

Engineering

Engineering   Reference library

Ann Johnson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...These institutions educated large numbers of engineers who were essential to the industrialization of postbellum America. Engineering disciplines were also formed under pressure to differentiate courses of study relevant for civil, mechanical, electrical, geological, and eventually chemical engineering. By the end of the nineteenth century the Society for the Promotion of Engineering Education was formed to standardize and approve engineering educational programs ( Seely, 2005 ). A second Morrill Agricultural College Act in 1890 fostered the creation of...

Hospitals

Hospitals   Reference library

Bernadette McCauley

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...organized under private auspices included the Friend’s Asylum in Philadelphia ( 1813 ), McLean Asylum in Boston (founded in 1818 but acquired its new name in 1826 ), and the Hartford retreat in Connecticut ( 1824 ) but these too never cared for many patients ( Grob, 1994 , pp. 20, 31). The mentally ill who were not in the care of family were more often committed to an almshouse or public hospital where they were held in cells, restrained, and minimally clothed. After observing the appalling conditions of mentally ill people confined to a Boston jail,...

Rivers As Technological Systems

Rivers As Technological Systems   Reference library

Martin Reuss

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...to the pleas of southern congressmen seeking federal assistance to fight periodic disastrous flooding along the Lower Mississippi, Congress appropriated $50,000 for a topographical and hydrographical survey of the Mississippi Delta, including a study of the best means of securing a 20-foot navigation channel at the Mississippi’s mouth. After 11 years of work, interrupted by other assignments and sickness, Captain Andrew A. Humphreys and Lieutenant Henry L. Abbot of the Corps of Topographical Engineers (separated from the Corps of Engineers in 1838 and...

High Schools, Science Education In

High Schools, Science Education In   Reference library

John L. Rudolph and David Meshoulam

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Teachers College Press, 1991. Dow, P. Schoolhouse Politics: Lessons from the Sputnik Era . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1991. Fuhrman, S. “Riding Waves, Trading Horses. The Twenty-Year Effort to Reform Education.” In A Nation Reformed? American Education 20 Years after A Nation at Risk , edited by D. T. Gordon , pp. 7–22. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Education Press, 2003. Geiger, R. “The Rise and Fall of Useful Knowledge: Higher Education for Science, Agriculture, and the Mechanic Arts.” History of Higher Education Annual 18 (1998):...

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