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Form 20-F

In the USA, the form required by the Securities and Exchange Commission for the filing of annual results by non-US companies.

Amarendra Nāth Dutt

Amarendra Nāth Dutt (1876)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopaedia of the Music of India

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
96 words

...Nāth Dutt ( b. Kolkata , 1876 ; d. ?, 6 Jan. 1916 ) An early participant in the Indian sound recording industry and a theatre personality of Bengal. Dutt's acting career stretched over 20 years, and he formed two drama companies in Kolkata. He—like J.F. Madan of the same city—was among the pioneers who helped ‘The Gramophone Co.’ in 1908 in the formation of an Indian repertoire for recordings in Kolkata. The recordings, which included theatrical scenes and dialogues from some popular plays, remained in the company's catalogue for several...

San Martín

San Martín   Reference library

John M. Schechter

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
92 words

...San Martín [sanmartín] . Cuban idiophone. It is made of a tempered iron sheet about 30 to 40 cm long and 20 to 25 cm wide, rolled to form a nearly closed tube. Held in the left hand and struck with an iron stick in the right hand, it is capable of producing two pitches. The instrument was popular in ensembles of certain Havana neighbourhoods, where it can still be heard; and in Afro-Cuban cults. See F. Ortiz : Los instrumentos de la música afrocubana (Havana, 1952–5), vol.2, 206–7. John M. Schechter /R ...

Tasha’ge

Tasha’ge   Reference library

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
100 words

...plains of the USA. It is made from a cluster of deer hoofs fastened by short leather thongs to the top of a beaded stick 20 to 25 cm long. The lower part of the stick forms the handle, which is often further ornamented with a long tassel of buckskin thongs. Similar rattles were commonly used in the men’s warrior societies of the Great Plains and in rites and ceremonies of some native Californian peoples. See A.C. Fletcher and F. La Flesche : The Omaha Tribe (Washington, 1911). ...

Stadler, Anton Paul

Stadler, Anton Paul (1753)   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Music (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music
Length:
157 words

...in A (K581, 1789 ), and the Cl Conc. in A (K622, 1791 ), as well as other pieces such as the cl and basset‐horn obbligati in La Clemenza di Tito which Stadler played at the f.p. in Prague, 1791 . The qnt and conc. were pubd in altered form to suit a normal cl, but in the 20th cent. Alan Hacker has played the orig. versions to good effect. Stadler and Mozart played together in f.p. of Mozart's E♭ qrt (K452), Vienna 1784 . Also comp. many pieces for cl and 18 trios for 3...

Mahler, Gustav

Mahler, Gustav (1860)   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Music (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music
Length:
1,457 words

...Pintos . F.p. Leipzig 1888 , f.p. in England 1962 . syms: No.1 in D major ( 1884–8 , rev. 1893 , 1896 reduced from 5 to 4 movts, and 1897–8 ; excluded movt, Blumine , restored in some 20th‐cent. perf). F.p. Budapest 1889 , f.p. in England 1903 . No.2 in C minor ( Resurrection ; 1888–94 , rev. 1910 ), sop., cont., ch, orch. F.p. Berlin 1895 , f.p. in England 1931 . No.3 in D minor ( 1895–6 ), cont., women's and boys' chs, orch. F.p. Krefeld 1902 , f.p. in England 1947 . No.4 in G major ( 1899–1900 , rev. 1910 ), sop. solo in finale. F.p. Munich ...

Lounuat

Lounuat   Reference library

Mervyn McLean and Don Niles

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
152 words

...30 cm deep, and 15 to 20 cm wide. Three (rarely four or five) cavities are cut transversely through the instrument. The wood remaining between the cavities forms separate, broad tongues along the top. The player sits or stands with the instrument held lengthwise between his knees and strokes the tongues into resonance with hands covered with resin or breadfruit-tree sap. The instruments were kept secret from females and uninitiated males, and played named compositions at fixed places within the malanggan ceremonies for the dead. See G.F. Messner : ‘The...

Damrosch, Walter Johannes

Damrosch, Walter Johannes (1862)   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Music (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music
Length:
136 words

...cond. NY Oratorio Soc. 1885–98 and ass. cond. Ger. opera, NY Met 1885–91 . Cond. first concert perf in USA of Parsifal , 1886 . Formed and cond. Damrosch Opera Co. in NY 1894–9 when it disbanded. Toured USA performing mainly Wagner's operas. Returned to Met 1900–3 . In 1903 reorganized NY Sym. Soc. as permanent orch, remaining cond. until merger with NYPO in 1928 . Introduced many 20th‐cent. works to USA and cond. f.ps. in USA of Bruckner's 3rd and Mahler's 4th syms. Comp. 4 operas, incl. The Scarlet Letter ( 1896 ) and Cyrano de Bergerac (...

Schmahl

Schmahl   Reference library

Hans Klotz, Maribel Meisel, Philip R. Belt, and Sabine K. Klaus

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
936 words

...by C.F. Schmahl and sons formerly in the Musikinstrumenten Museum, Berlin (1812, fretted, F′–a ‴ ) and in the Deutsches Museum, Munich (1812–15, unfretted, F′–c ‴ ); and by G.F. Schmahl (ii) in Finchcocks, Goudhurst, England (1807, fretted with octave strings in the bass, C–f ″ ). Signed pianos with the Prellmechanik include a 5½-octave grand by C.F. Schmahl ( D.HA.h , 1804), a six-octave ( F′–f ″″) grand by C.F. Schmahl ( D.N.gnm , 1809) and a five-octave grand by his sons Jakob Friedrich and Christian Carl ( D.N.gnm , 1814). Bibliography ...

Moezelzak

Moezelzak (ii)   Reference library

Ferdinand J. de Hen

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
196 words

...Moezelzak (ii) . Bagpipe of Belgium. It is known in several forms: with a single drone (13th–16th centuries) as depicted in the Breviary of Philip the Good ( c 1450) and elsewhere; without drone, fairly small (15th–19th centuries) shown in a 15th-century Book of Hours in the Royal Library, Brussels (MS 9798 f.5a and 151); with two drones, the bigger resting on the player’s shoulder and the smaller parallel with the chanter (played up to the 20th century); and with two parallel drones either tied directly in the bag or placed in a common stock as...

Harrass

Harrass   Reference library

Anne Beetem Acker

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
240 words

...registers. It is said, questionably, to have belonged to Wilhelm Friedemann Bach and possibly to Johann Sebastian Bach. Both instruments have a double-curved bentside and five-octave compass F ′ –f‴ . The ‘Bach Harpsichord’ has been copied often, first in a modernized form in 1899 by the piano maker Wilhelm Hirl. Historically informed copies have been made in the late 20th and early 21st centuries by builders such as Alastair R. McAllister of Australia and Nicholas Macheret of Switzerland. See K. Restle : Das Berliner ‘Bach-Cembalo’: ein Mythos und seine...

Changi

Changi   Reference library

Nino Razmadze

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
220 words

...have small circular or f-shaped soundholes. The right-angled or slightly bent neck carries six, 10, or 11 strings of twisted horsehair (formerly silk) wound around wooden pegs; at the lower end the strings are attached directly to the soundtable or to a slat affixed to its surface. The changi is held vertically on the knees and the strings are played either in chords or by plucking individual strings. One or several changis are played, mostly by women, to accompany solo or choral singing. In the mid-20th century, several modified forms of the changi were...

binary form

binary form   Reference library

G. M. Tucker and Lalage Cochrane

The Oxford Companion to Music

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
527 words
Illustration(s):
1

...key the music proceeds through F♯ minor, the relative minor of the tonic (bar 16), and passes again through the dominant (bar 18) in a harmonic sequence leading to the subdominant key of D major (bar 20), before closing in the home key. During the mid- and late Baroque periods, various characteristics became apparent in binary-form movements. One such feature was the use of ‘rhyming cadences’, whereby the cadence at the end of the first section was heard again in the tonic key at the end of the second. In its simplest form, this was a repetition of the...

Bruckner, Joseph Anton

Bruckner, Joseph Anton (1824)   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Music (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music
Length:
1,581 words

...cuts and alterations by F. Löwe 1887–8 (version 3). F.p. 20 Feb. 1881 , Vienna, cond. Richter (version 2); 22 Jan. 1888 , Vienna, cond. Richter (version 3); f.p. version 1: 20 Sept. 1975 , Linz, cond. Wöss (but scherzo alone was perf 12 Dec. 1909 , Linz, cond. A. Göllerich). Publication: 1896 (Doblinger); ed. Haas (version 2) 1936 and 1944 ; ed. Nowak (version 2) 1953 . No.5 in B♭ major. Comp. 1875–6 , minor rev. 1877–8 . F.p. 8 April 1894 , Graz, cond. F. Schalk (spurious version by Schalk); orig. version 20 Oct. 1935 , Munich, cond....

Spilåpipa

Spilåpipa   Reference library

Birgit Kjellström

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
315 words

...a spälapipa or fingerpipa of Jämtland and Hälsingland, made of willow bark with six fingerholes. Some wooden flutes are more elaborate and are provided with carved or turned projections above the fingerholes and by the mouthpiece, while some have sketchily formed bells. At the beginning of the 20th century the instrument was manufactured in increasing numbers in Dalecarlia as a souvenir for tourists. Bone and horn have also been used for flutes since prehistoric times. Bone flutes were still being made in the late 19th century by the herdsmen of West Gotland...

passacaglia

passacaglia   Reference library

Christopher Wilson

The Oxford Companion to Music

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
405 words

...the finale of Brahms's Symphony no. 4—though it is not called ‘passacaglia’. The 20th century saw something of a revival of the form by mainstream composers, starting with Reger ( 1906 ) and continuing with Webern ( 1908 ), Schoenberg (in Pierrot lunaire ), Berg ( Wozzeck , Act II), Stravinsky (Septet), Britten ( Peter Grimes , Act II), Hindemith (Fourth String Quartet), Vaughan Williams (Fifth Symphony), and others. The structure of the 20th-century form as a continuous set of variations on a ground (bass) is essentially modelled on the...

Cici’gwăn

Cici’gwăn   Reference library

Mary Riemer-Weller and J. Richard Haefer

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
264 words

...in the Great Lakes region of the USA and Canada. Three forms exist. The first, a cylindrical vessel rattle, is made by wrapping birchbark around two wooden disks, with a wooden handle inserted through both discs. The body is 11 to 15 cm tall and 10 to15 cm in diameter, and contains small pebbles or buckshot. The second form is a disc-shaped vessel made from a narrow wooden hoop 20 to 30 cm in diameter and 1 to 3 cm thick, covered on both sides with hide; it contains pebbles or buckshot. A long extension (20 to 30 cm) of the hoop serves as a handle. Usually three...

aria

aria   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Music (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music
Length:
187 words

...in a dramatic context, although may be used for purely instrumental works of a similar character. From late-17th cent. the term implied a solo vocal piece in ABA form normally called a da capo aria, of which A. Scarlatti was an important innovator. The singer was expected to add ornaments in the repeated A section. In 19th‐cent. the operatic aria became more elaborate and complex becoming, in 20th cent., dramatically blurred and often indistinguishable from surrounding narration. Arias used to be rather minutely classified as (a) aria cantabile , slow...

Royal Scottish National Orchestra

Royal Scottish National Orchestra   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Music (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music
Length:
219 words

...National Orchestra Principal professional symphony orchestra of Scotland, based in Glasgow and giving regular series of concerts in Glasgow, Edinburgh, and other Scottish towns. Formed 1891 as Scottish Orch, with George Henschel as orch. 1891–5 . His successors were Kes ( 1895–8 ), Bruch ( 1898–1900 ), Cowen ( 1900–10 ), Mlynarski ( 1910–16 ), Ronald ( 1916–20 ), Julius Harrison ( 1920–3 ). From 1923 to 1933 there was no regular cond. except in 1926 when Talich was in charge. Barbirolli was cond. 1933–6 , followed by Szell ...

gavotte

gavotte   Reference library

Wendy Thompson and Jane Bellingham

The Oxford Companion to Music

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
330 words

...form, especially for keyboard, the gavotte appears as an optional movement in the 18th-century *suite , where it usually follows the sarabande, and as an independent piece. It was also used as a movement in many 18th-century solo and trio sonatas. Composers who wrote instrumental gavottes include François Couperin , Rameau , Purcell , Pachelbel , and J. C. F. Fischer . J. S. Bach included one in each of the first two English Suites. In the 19th century, many lightweight drawing-room pieces were written in gavotte style, and the form was...

Ludwig

Ludwig (15 July 1879)   Reference library

Edmund A. Bowles

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
492 words

...1927. By the early 1930s, the guitar had replaced the banjo in popularity; production of banjos ceased in 1932. In 1936 Ludwig resigned to set up the W.F.L. Drum Co. together with his son, William F. Ludwig Jr, in Chicago, and throughout the next 20 years produced several new models of timpani and a variety of percussion instruments. In 1955 he bought back the Ludwig portion of Conn’s percussion business, forming the Ludwig Drum Co. Much of the company’s business became focused on drum kits for jazz drummers, and the Supraphonic 400 snare drum became a flagship...

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