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Establishment

Subject: Religion

In ecclesiastical usage, the recognition by the State of a particular Church as that of the State. In OT Judaism and in much of the ancient world, religious observance was part of the ...

establishment book

establishment book   Reference library

A Dictionary of English Manuscript Terminology 1450–2000

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, History
Length:
111 words

... book ‘Establishment book’ is a term applied to a formal register or account book listing in detail, with their respective fees and order of precedence, the principal offices of the realm, both civil and military, maintained at the expense of the sovereign or state. These will include officers of the Admiralty, of fortified towns, fortresses (such as the Tower of London), royal palaces, forests, and Duchies of Cornwall and Lancaster. They may well also include Royal Household accounts ( see royal household accounts ). Such books are usually...

peace establishment

peace establishment   Reference library

The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

...establishment the authorized size, composition, and organization of a nation's armed forces in...

war establishment

war establishment   Reference library

The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

...establishment the level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in...

establishment of religion

establishment of religion   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Canadian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
412 words

... of religion . A religious organization is established when, by law, it enjoys the unique protection and support of the state and in some measure comes under its control. The term establishment comes from the law of England. Before Confederation the Roman Catholic Church and the Church of England displayed many of the characteristics of a church establishment in much of what is now Canada. In New France, the Roman Catholic curé and seigneur were seen as partners in shepherding their communities. Religious orders ran schools and hospitals. Parish...

National Military Establishment

National Military Establishment   Reference library

The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

...Military Establishment an organization created by the National Security Act of 1947 , comprised of the heads of the armed forces departments, and responsible for coordinating and responding to defense issues after World War II . The CIA and the National Security Council were created by the same...

establishment of the port

establishment of the port   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Ships and the Sea (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
166 words

... of the port , the interval between the time of meridian passage of the new or the full moon and the time of the following high tide . This interval which is constant for a given port is also known as the High Water Full and Change constant (HWF & C). The average interval is known as the mean high water lunitidal interval. Because the tides are governed largely by the moon, and because the time of meridian passage of the moon is later each day by about 50 minutes, it follows that, if the age of the moon and the establishment of the port are...

Long Range Weapons Establishment, Woomera

Long Range Weapons Establishment, Woomera   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian Military History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...Range Weapons Establishment, Woomera A joint Anglo-Australian project established in 1946 , the Long Range Weapons Establishment was in part a reaction to the experience of German V weapons used against London in 1945 , and was conceived within a context of increasing Cold War tensions. It was also established on the assumption that a joint Commonwealth defence policy was possible after 1945 . A testing range was established at Woomera, in South Australia, which, at 1250 miles in length, became the largest land testing range in the Western world. A...

The Independence of New Spain and the Establishment of the Mexican Republic, 1808–1824

The Independence of New Spain and the Establishment of the Mexican Republic, 1808–1824   Reference library

Jaime E. Rodríguez O.

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mexican History and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
11,795 words

...Independence of New Spain and the Establishment of the Mexican Republic, 1808–1824 The independence of New Spain was not the result of an anticolonial struggle. Rather, it was a consequence of a great political revolution that culminated in the dissolution of the Spanish Monarchy, a world-wide political system. The movement was an integral part of the broader process that was transforming antiguo régimen societies into modern liberal nation states. The new country of Mexico that emerged from the break up of the Spanish Monarchy retained many of the shared ...

establishment of the port

establishment of the port  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
The interval between the time of meridian passage of the new or the full moon and the time of the following high tide. This interval which is constant for a given port is also known as the High Water ...
establishment of religion

establishment of religion  

A religious organization is established when, by law, it enjoys the unique protection and support of the state and in some measure comes under its control. The term establishment comes ...
Long Range Weapons Establishment, Woomera

Long Range Weapons Establishment, Woomera  

Reference type:
Overview Page
A joint Anglo-Australian project established in 1946, the Long Range Weapons Establishment was in part a reaction to the experience of German V weapons used against London in 1945, and ...
6 The European Printing Revolution

6 The European Printing Revolution   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,082 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...larger variety of titles, to more people, in different locations, generally at a cheaper price. The establishment of printing in about 250 towns, most of which hosted more than one *printing office , is characterized by an enormous amount of entrepreneurial experimentation. A more detailed analysis of the presses’ output and period of activity would show that a number of cases involved the work of an itinerant printer or of temporary or short-lived establishments. Printers moved in and out of a profession not yet perceived as such, nor yet clearly defined by...

26 The History of the Book in the Nordic Countries

26 The History of the Book in the Nordic Countries   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,145 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...invaluable Icelandic *codices . Furthermore, numerous fragments have survived as binding material (e.g. c .10,000 leaves or sheets representing c .1,500 books from Finland), adding considerably to what is known about Nordic medieval book culture. With the missions and the establishment of churches in the 10 th –12 th centuries, Scandinavia became part of Christian European culture, being introduced to *parchment books and to the Latin language and alphabet. Reading and writing were not entirely new phenomena. Runes ( see 3 ) had been used for...

39 The History of the Book in the Indian Subcontinent

39 The History of the Book in the Indian Subcontinent   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,044 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...deploring the ‘eternal treacherous behaviour’ of his Bengali assistants (Shaw, Printing , 24–5 ). Two events in 1800 were to have a momentous effect on printing in south and southeast Asia. The first was the establishment in Calcutta of the Fort William College to train the British civilians of the East India Company. The second was the establishment of a Baptist mission at Serampore (25 km from Calcutta) by William *Carey , an ex-cobbler, who arrived at Calcutta in 1793 . His first few years in India were spent in Malda, working for an indigo planter, and...

Central Government, Courts, and Taxation

Central Government, Courts, and Taxation   Quick reference

R. W. Hoyle

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
7,753 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...both there and in Scotland necessitated policies which diverged significantly from those employed in England itself, for instance the state‐sponsored dissolution of Irish landlord class after 1870 . The 20th century has seen the loss of some areas (the Irish Republic), the establishment of satellite government in another (Northern Ireland), and the delegation of powers to regional offices in Scotland, Wales, and Ireland. More recently Wales and Scotland have both been given assemblies with differing degrees of legislative power. ‘Central government’ means...

22 The History of the Book in France

22 The History of the Book in France   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,032 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...as 1475 ); at Rouen in 1485 ; at Abbeville in 1486 ; at Orléans and Grenoble in 1490 ; at Angoulême and Narbonne in 1491 . Save for a few ephemeral undertakings, like the one Jehan de Rohan ran in his Breton château of Bréhant-Loudéac in 1484–5 , most were permanent establishments. Leaving aside the Alsatian region, which was politically and culturally part of the Germanic world, there were presses in about 30 French cities by 1500 . Lyons was not a university town but a major commercial centre with frequent contacts with northern Italy and Germany....

31 The History of the Book in Hungary

31 The History of the Book in Hungary   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
2,942 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...publishing career he produced 663 works, of which 629 were in Hungarian. His printing and publishing enterprise effectively created the Athenaeum Literary and Joint Stock Limited Printing Company ( 1868 ), which by the end of the century had become the best-equipped printing establishment in the country. Pallas, the country’s largest printing and publishing firm, was founded in 1884 . It boasted a modern typefoundry, a lithographic press, a bindery, rotary- *offset and *intaglio printing presses. Besides books, it produced journals as well as commercial and...

34 The History of the Book in the Baltic States

34 The History of the Book in the Baltic States   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
1,992 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the republics within the USSR. Under Soviet occupation, the Baltic States suffered severe population loss through deportation and emigration, the latter resulting in a sizeable output of émigré publications (e.g. in Sweden, Germany, the UK, US, and Australia). Following the establishment of strong pro-independence movements during the second half of the 1980s , Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania formally declared their independence in 1990 and de facto became independent sovereign states again in 1991 . In 2004 , they became members of the European Union and...

27 The History of the Book in the Iberian Peninsula

27 The History of the Book in the Iberian Peninsula   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,196 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...export business. Castile’s commercial prosperity and the growth of its governmental administration and universities ensured that printing became a permanent industry. The Catholic Monarchs’ legal measures to stimulate printing and the book trade were potent weapons in their establishment. Printers’ exemption from military service and the reduction of taxes on book imports served to encourage the book trade and turn it into an attractive mercantile sector. These measures also included incentives for citizens to enter the trade, and for foreign printers to...

47 The History of the Book in Canada

47 The History of the Book in Canada   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,120 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...Brown. The lieutenant-governor’s wife noted in her diary that the French printer Louis Roy did not write good English. Canada’s founding printers shared similar patterns of diversification as booksellers, binders, and stationers. The spread of the press can be mapped by the establishment of newspapers, because most printers in the years before 1840 were also newspaper publishers. Many papers were partisan, some openly political, others allied to a denomination or faction. Government supporters won printing contracts; opponents could face prosecution. In...

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