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Overview

Establishment

Subject: Religion

In ecclesiastical usage, the recognition by the State of a particular Church as that of the State. In OT Judaism and in much of the ancient world, religious observance was part of the ...

penology

penology   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
75 words

...The study of the management and punishment of criminals. The term is associated with the 19th-century movement in penal reform, which redefined prisons as correctional rather than retributive establishments, and at that time described a large number of interested parties (including reformers and lawyers) and a discrete debate. However, in its contemporary usage it normally refers to specific sociological or criminological studies of punishment and deterrence, rather than a separate intellectual or academic...

managerial revolution

managerial revolution   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
125 words

...manager as the controlling figure. This is associated with the declining importance of family ownership and private property in contemporary capitalism . The concept originates in a book of that title by James Burnham ( 1941 ) who asserted that not only industrial establishments but state agencies and all other significant organizations would become dominated by a new ruling class of managerial professionals pursuing their own interests. It is also associated with Adolf A. Berle and Gardiner C. Means ( The Modern Corporation and Private Property...

Janowitz, Morris

Janowitz, Morris (1919–88)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
148 words

...Morris ( 1919–88 ) An American sociologist , student at Chicago University in the mid-1940s, then Professor in a number of North American departments. He was the author of numerous books, including The Professional Soldier (1946) , Sociology and the Military Establishment (1959) , Social Control of the Welfare State (1976) , The Last Half-Century (1978) , and The Reconstruction of Patriotism (1983). Janowitz will be remembered as probably the leading sociologist of the military, and for his argument that the transition from early to...

welfare state

welfare state   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
181 words

...intended to ensure the well-being of its members, through providing education for children, access to health care, financial support for periods out of the labour market, and so on. It gained currency in Britain and internationally in the late 1940s following the post-war establishment of a range of British public welfare systems ( see Beveridge Report ). Welfare states differ widely, however, in the ways in which they make such provision: for example, whether there is an emphasis on insurance contributions of paid workers and building up entitlement,...

Beveridge Report

Beveridge Report   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
646 words

...The report was enthusiastically received, selling 635 000 at two shillings each in the days following its release. This report came to be regarded as the blueprint of the British welfare state and continues to be invoked as a way of summarizing the post-war settlement and the establishment of the British welfare state, among both sociologists and politicians. In fact, though, the report dealt only with one aspect of the welfare state: how national insurance should function to cover periods of non-employment through sickness, unemployment, or old age, and the...

natural law

natural law   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
320 words

...a God-given system, but from the Reformation onwards, attempts were made to give natural law secular foundations in human nature and reason. In the Leviathan of Thomas Hobbes , for example, ‘laws of nature’ provide rational grounds for the social contract, and so for the establishment of political authority. Since the 18th century, legal theory has tended to be hostile to the notion of natural law—the conventional, socially and historically formed character of law being more commonly emphasized. However, the increase in moral authority attaching to human ...

professions

professions   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
324 words

...example in medicine, education, religion and the law. In the mainstream of the sociology of work and organizations, professionalism is contrasted with bureaucracy, and the so-called bureaucratic mentality. Recent sociological work has tended to view professionalization as the establishment of effective interest-group control over clients with socially constructed problems as a method of exercising power in society. This approach treats professional ethics as an ideology, rather than an orientation necessarily adhered to, or meaningful in practice. Entry and...

structural differentiation

structural differentiation   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
361 words

...(as for example in Modernization, Protest and Change , 1967 , and Revolution and the Transformation of Societies , 1978 ). Talcott Parsons sees the process as involving three stages: a process of differentiation; a process of adaptation and reintegration; and, finally, the establishment of a more general system of values which holds the more complex society together. The impetus towards differentiation comes from the need for a society to adapt to its physical and social environment. The basic evolutionary idea can be found in Herbert Spencer , is...

Christianity

Christianity   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
387 words

...was originally a social movement in Judaism , emerging in Jerusalem during the Roman occupation. With the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 ce , Christianity became increasingly a religion of Gentiles, partly as a consequence of the preaching of the apostle Paul and his establishment of Gentile churches. In Rome, these Christian groups became the targets of political repression, especially under Nero. This persecution resulted in new institutions of martyrdom and sainthood. Although Christianity spread among the lower classes, it eventually won favour...

colonialism

colonialism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
253 words

...The establishment by more developed countries of formal political authority over areas of Asia, Africa, Australasia, and Latin America. It is distinct from spheres of influence, indirect forms of control, semi-colonialism , and neo-colonialism . Colonialism was practised by Spain, Portugal, Britain, France, and the Netherlands in the Americas from the fifteenth century onwards, and extended to virtually all of Asia and Africa during the 19th century. It was usually (but not necessarily) accompanied by the settling of White populations in these...

criminology

criminology   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
367 words

... may be interested in the processes of making and breaking laws and in issues such as proportionality—making the punishment fit the crime. During the 1960s and early 1970s, a sociology of deviance developed as a source of sociological opposition to the law-enforcement and establishment-orientation or traditional criminology, and as an epistemological critique of unquestioned assumptions about what constitutes crime. The approach placed crime within a wider framework of forms of deviance such as mental illness, political conflict, and other forms of...

Hobbes, Thomas

Hobbes, Thomas (1588–1679)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
435 words

...passions are the basis of moral judgement, and issue in actions whose tendency is self-preservation. In Hobbes's view, then, human action is governed by the twin passions of fear of death and desire for power. If we imagine humans living in a ‘state of nature’ prior to the establishment of any law or political power to keep them ‘in awe’, each individual, lacking any reason for expecting goodwill from the others, will be caught up in a restless pursuit of ever more power. In such a situation, the desire for security on the part of each individual must issue...

Locke, John

Locke, John (1632–1702)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
432 words

...own persons, the mixing of their labour with some part of the material world gives them property rights in what they produce. However, this is so only on condition that what they take does not go to waste, and that enough remains for others. The institution of money (whose establishment, like governmental power, Locke takes to have been a matter of voluntary agreement) allows for the transfer of property rights, and for the potentially limitless accumulation of wealth. See also liberalism...

military and militarism

military and militarism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
674 words

...substantive importance (such as the experience of relative deprivation investigated by Stouffer and his colleagues). By far the best overview of this literature, and still probably the best introduction to the field as a whole, is Janowitz's Sociology and the Military Establishment (3rd edn., 1974). A good overview of the field and update is Martin Shaw and Colin Creighton (eds.), The Sociology of War and Peace (1988). See also imperialism...

psychiatry

psychiatry   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
541 words

...mental disorders. It developed as a professional grouping in the first half of the 19th century: the term was coined in Germany in 1808 and was more widely used in Europe and America from the 1840s. Medical interest and specialization in insanity was not new. However, the establishment of lunatic hospitals and asylums (first voluntary then public) from the mid-18th century onwards, provided a solid foundation for the emergence of psychiatry as a profession. The asylum offered new opportunities for observation, treatment, and training, and new powers like...

altruism

altruism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
653 words

...to public goods . Other social animals also display altruistic behaviour (for example, birds give predator alarms) and some research has suggested that there is a hereditary, genetic component in altruism. Sociobiologists have identified selection processes that lead to the establishment and perpetuation of ‘altruistic’ genes in populations. In addition, socialization in the family and community encourages people to adhere to public-spirited values and engage in helping behaviour. People who do voluntary work generally give altruistic reasons for becoming...

Goldthorpe class scheme

Goldthorpe class scheme   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
1,118 words

...the now standard elevenfold Goldthorpe class scheme shown in the table. The Goldthorpe Class Categories I Higher-grade professionals, administrators, and officials; managers in large industrial establishments; large proprietors II Lower-grade professionals, administrators, and officials; higher-grade technicians; managers in small industrial establishments; supervisors of non-manual employees IIIa Routine non-manual employees, higher grade (administration and commerce) IIIb Routine non-manual employees, lower grade (sales and services) IVa Small...

Marxism

Marxism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
856 words

...in the early years of the century. This was the Bolshevism fashioned by Lenin , during the course of his struggle with the Russian equivalent of German orthodox Marxism, namely Menshevism. For the reasons set out by Herbert Marcuse in his Soviet Marxism (1958) , the establishment of Marxism-Leninism or Stalinism as the ruling ideology of the Soviet state led to the self-strangulation of the most influential body of Marxist thought as a creative and critical enterprise. During the 1920s a number of new approaches to Marxism, based on Hegel and the...

Durkheim, Émile

Durkheim, Émile (1858–1917)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
933 words

...to a Chair in Paris. Some have suggested that, in this, he was a victim of the anti-semitism of French intellectual life. However, it is also true that his single-minded championing of sociology as the most important social science gained him many enemies in the educational establishment, and his career is littered with bitter controversies involving those who rejected his vision of sociology. Most of his major monographs were translated into English after his death and are, remarkably, still in print even in translation. The impelling logic of The Division...

division of labour

division of labour   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
1,135 words

...encourage specialist talents in individuals, and the differentiation of activities in institutions. But although the economic division of labour may have initiated such a way of life, by itself the unregulated market loosens restraint on individual desires, undermines the establishment of social trust , and produces abnormal forms of the division of labour. This is the source of his celebrated concept of anomie , and of the forced division of labour associated with class and political conflict. Full organic solidarity will require appropriate education;...

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