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Overview

Establishment

Subject: Religion

In ecclesiastical usage, the recognition by the State of a particular Church as that of the State. In OT Judaism and in much of the ancient world, religious observance was part of the ...

Fatima bint Mubarak, Sheikha

Fatima bint Mubarak, Sheikha (bce 1940)   Reference library

Wanda Krause

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
627 words

...its federation in 1971 and, previously, ruler of the Eastern Region of Abu Dhabi. Sheikha Fatima played a pivotal role in supporting her husband during unification and the establishment of basic infrastructure for the country. As first lady, she is referred to as the mother of the nation. She has also played a pioneering role in women's development in the UAE. Since the establishment of the General Women's Union in 1975 , Sheikha Fatima has chaired the umbrella women's organization. She is also chairperson of the Family Development Foundation. Her...

Gender Advisory Board, United Nations Commission on Science and Technology for Development

Gender Advisory Board, United Nations Commission on Science and Technology for Development   Reference library

Dominic T. Bocci

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
488 words

...three overlapping realms of science and technology, sustainable human development, and gender and identified seven key transformative action areas, including, among others, gender equity in science and technology education and relating better with local knowledge systems. The establishment of an advisory board was to help ensure the report's implementation throughout the United Nations system. ESOSOC ratified the GWG's recommendations and the GAB was formally established in 1995 . From its initiation, the GAB consisted of members from seven countries, including...

Tarzi, Mahmud

Tarzi, Mahmud (1865–1933)   Reference library

Justin Corfield and Natana J. DeLong-Bas

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
576 words

...their education in Turkey, where education had been secularized. When the King abdicated in 1929 , the Tarzi family was again forced into exile. Tarzi died on 22 November 1933 , in Istanbul. His influence in Afghanistan's history nevertheless remains, as shown by the establishment of the Mahmud Tarzi Cultural Foundation in Kabul in his memory in 2005 , which focuses on education and advancing the status of children and women in Afghan society. Bibliography Gregorian, Vartan . “Mahmud Tarzi and Saraj-ol-Akbar: Ideology of Nationalism and Modernization...

UN Development Fund for Women

UN Development Fund for Women   Reference library

Roja Fazaeli

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
627 words

...Iran. Iran also made another pledge, of the same amount, toward an International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women (INSTRAW), which was to be established in Tehran. However, as a consequence of the fall of the Pahlavi dynasty ( 1925–1979 ) and the establishment of the Islamic Republic of Iran in 1979 , INSTRAW was ultimately located in the Dominican Republic. The mandate of the Voluntary Fund was extended in 1985 at the end of the UN Decade for Women, at which point it became UNIFEM, an autonomous organization associated with the...

Zāwiyah

Zāwiyah   Reference library

Beverly Mack

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
660 words

...The move from prayer to education is a short step, for the Qurʾān advises that individuals seek knowledge at every step of their lives. Prior to colonial intervention, the zāwiyah was a significant center of learning for affiliates of Ṣūfī brotherhoods. Since the colonial establishment of public schools, which often favored boys’ enrollment, the zāwiyah has continued to function as a venue for women's education in which they attend small, informal classes several times a week. The zāwiyah offers secure space for women to meet to discuss a wide range of...

Esack, Farid

Esack, Farid (b. 1959)   Reference library

Eren Tatari

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
510 words

...against apartheid comes from his own background of having been relocated to a different neighborhood under the Group Areas Act (acts under the parliament of South Africa that assigned racial groups to separate residential and business sectors). His activism also led to the establishment of Positive Muslims, an organization that works with HIV positive Muslims in South Africa. His scholarly talent was recognized from a young age. He joined the Tablīghī Jamāʿat—a staunchly pious international brotherhood—when he was nine years old. A year later he was teaching...

International League of Muslim Women

International League of Muslim Women   Reference library

Natana J. DeLong-Bas

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
600 words

...to address a variety of needs within the local African American Muslim community that resonated with populations elsewhere. Funds were initially raised to provide food, clothing, shelter, and money for needy individuals, families, and groups. Activities then expanded to the establishment and maintenance of the Muslim Pioneer House (a home for senior citizens), a nonprofit resale shop (which solicits and accepts donations of gently used items for resale at discounted prices), and the An-Nisa House (a shelter for battered women). The League also established a...

Medical Profession, Women in the

Medical Profession, Women in the   Reference library

Miri Shefer-Mossensohn

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
2,282 words

...hospitals of a new type were opened, and new public health measures, such as vaccinations, quarantines, and forensic medicine, were implemented. Female practitioners were part of these reforms. They assumed new responsibilities and occupied a more central role in the medical establishment. Egypt, on which much research regarding women, medicine, and health has been carried out in comparison to other areas within the Middle East–North Africa region, witnessed the first school of midwives in 1832 in Cairo. The school offered a six-year curriculum, which focused...

Iraq

Iraq   Reference library

Alexandra M. Jerome

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
1,090 words

...narrator of the 1001 Arabian Nights . The centuries following the Abbasids brought more dynastic rule, with varying degrees of Islamicization of Iraq: the Mamluks; Ottomans; and, eventually, a secular, British, rule. The establishment of modern European and American styles of education occurred through British influence and the establishment, briefly, of a Hashemite monarchy in Iraq. Beginning in the 1920s, women began to be university educated. The overthrow of the British-supported Hashemite royal family in Iraq in 1958 and the installation of the Baʿath...

Hagarism

Hagarism   Reference library

Matthew Long

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
781 words

...the Qurʾān as one of the anachronistic texts, postulating that its composition occurred well after the eighth century. Crone and Cook, therefore, utilize a number of Near Eastern reports and letters, composed in Syriac, Hebrew, Armenian, and other languages, to recast the establishment of the movement that came to be known as Islam. In their view, Hagarism originated from the Arabs—seen as descendants of Hagar and Ishmael—who were the driving force of this movement that stormed out of Arabia into Palestine. Crone and Cook theorized that the movement was a...

Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia   Reference library

Hatoon Al-Fassi

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
2,743 words

...of the religious establishment was strengthened in the public arena. Constraints were subsequently imposed on women, pulling them away from the public sphere. The resulting limitations on education, work, and movement were reflected in women's economic participation confining them to jobs that conform to rules of segregation. This has resulted in turning Saudi women into the least economically productive persons in the world, with only 10.5 percent economic participation, not by their own choice, but by state and religious establishment unconscious design....

Ṣefātī, Zohreh

Ṣefātī, Zohreh (b. 1948)   Reference library

Mirjam Künkler

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
722 words

...law. She was married to Ayatollah Moḥammad Ḥasan Aḥmadī Faqīh ( d. 2010 ), with whom she had four daughters and two sons. Ṣefātī grew up in Abadan and moved to Qom in the 1970s to seek religious training at a time when a number of ḥawẓa opened women's sections. After the establishment of Jāmiʿat al-Zahrāʾ in Qom in 1985, the Islamic Republic's largest women's theological seminary, Ṣefātī became an instructor there, teaching inter alia the highest level of learning, the dars-e khārej , which leads to permission to engage in ejtehād (reasoning based on the...

Zia, Khaleda

Zia, Khaleda   Reference library

Maryam Khalid

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
702 words

...army. In the early years of her marriage, she completed her college education and took on homemaker duties while her husband became a prominent figure in the East Pakistani independence movement and eventually became the first prime minister of Bangladesh six years after its establishment in 1977 . During her husband's time in office and his leadership of the Islamic Bangladeshi Nationalist Party (BNP), Zia was not significantly involved in political affairs. After her husband's assassination in 1981 , Zia entered Bangladeshi politics when she was elected...

Qājār Dynasty

Qājār Dynasty   Reference library

Moojan Momen

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
1,819 words

...in the reformist press about the position of women. Despite the important role they played in the Constitutional Revolution, women were denied the vote in the constitution that was promulgated. However, this revolution marks the beginning of many further advances, such as the establishment of girls’ schools, the formation of women's societies, and the emergence of women writers advocating women's rights. Among the prominent women of this period were Bībī Khānum Astarābādī ( 1858–1921 ), who founded a girls’ school and wrote a refutation of an attack on women;...

Communications Media

Communications Media   Reference library

Hamid Mowlana, Joseph Kéchichian, and Nadine El Sayed

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
4,004 words

...for sociopolitical reforms. Thus, during the last two decades of the nineteenth century, two types of publications emerged in the Islamic world: liberal and religious press. The Western-trained journalistic establishment that was led by the educated elite promoted European ideas of secularism, liberalism, and modern nationalism. The religious establishments, on the other hand, were led by Islamic reformists such as Sayyid Jamāl al-Dīn al-Afghānī, who was campaigning for a unified Islamic community throughout the Middle East, Asia, and North Africa. By the turn...

Financial Institutions

Financial Institutions   Reference library

Yvonne Corcoran-Nantes

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
3,608 words

...five-year development plans in which women's employment was encouraged and facilitated and universal women's education was underwritten by the public sector. Moreover, the private finance sector also responded to the rising profile of women in economic development, from the establishment of women-only banking and savings-and-loan cooperatives in South Asia to the expansion of Islamic banking facilities for women in the Muslim world. Under Sharīʾah law, women had gained the guaranteed right to own property almost a century and a half before Western women, and...

Oman

Oman   Reference library

Khalid al-Azri

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
2,461 words

...the first Muslim civil war. Ibadis take their name from the seventh century ce ‘Abdullah bin Ibad. Ibadi resources claim that the Ibadi School emerged in Basra in Iraq, in the first Islamic century, and thus their school is the first to be established in Islam, before the establishment of the Sunnī or the Shīʿī schools. An Ibadi group called the “carriers of knowledge” ( Hamalat al-‘Ilm ) traveled from Basra in the eighth century, carrying the Ibadi teachings to Oman, and eventually were able to establish a religious-tribal authority in Oman called the...

Palestine

Palestine   Reference library

Hilde Granås Kjøstvedt

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
2,241 words

.... This entry covers the area that presently constitutes the State of Israel and the Occupied Palestinian territories of the West Bank and Gaza Strip, from the end of the Ottoman Empire ( 1917 ) until the establishment of the state of Israel ( 1948 ). During this time the area was under British rule, in accordance with the Sykes–Picot Agreement. After having defeated the Ottoman army, British forces set up a military administration of the area, which was replaced by a civil one in 1920 . The League of Nations formalized British rule into a mandate in ...

Fāṭimid Dynasty

Fāṭimid Dynasty   Reference library

Farhad Daftary, D. S. Richards, and Farhad Daftary

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
2,511 words

...ʿAbd Allāh. In June 909 Abū ʿAbd Allāh set off at the head of his Kutāma army to Sijilmāsa, to hand the reins of power to the Ismāʿīlī imam. ʿAbd Allāh al-Mahdī entered Qayrawān on 4 January 910 and was immediately proclaimed caliph. The Ismāʿīlī daʿwah finally led to the establishment of a dawlah , or state, headed by the Ismāʿīlī imam. The Shīʿī caliphate of the Fāṭimids commenced in Ifrīqiyah and came to be known as the Fāṭimid dynasty or Fāṭimīyah, named for the Prophet's daughter and ʿAlī's wife, Fāṭimah, to whom al-Mahdī and his successors traced...

Painting

Painting   Reference library

Nancy Micklewright, Yuka Kadoi, and Diane Apostolos-Cappadona

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
2,695 words

...colonialism. However, since the 1980 and 1990s there has been a rapid growth in the establishment of national museums of modern art, art academies, and private galleries. Many of these institutions have supported the training and the exhibitions of woman painters and curators who have moved beyond the artistic influences of either nineteenth-century Orientalist painters or the hegemony of modern art from the West. For example, in Jordan, Wijdan Ali worked on the establishment of the Royal Society of Fine Arts ( 1979 ), the National Gallery of Fine Arts ( 1980...

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