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Establishment

Subject: Religion

In ecclesiastical usage, the recognition by the State of a particular Church as that of the State. In OT Judaism and in much of the ancient world, religious observance was part of the ...

American Legion

American Legion   Reference library

Lynn Dumenil

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...service and other positions of authority, and it vehemently supported the U.S. anti-Soviet foreign policy. In addition to promoting nationalistic patriotism, the legion has been one of the most powerful lobbying agencies in the nation’s history. It was instrumental in the establishment in the 1920 s of the Veterans Bureau, the predecessor of the Department of Veterans Affairs. The Servicemen’s Readjustment Act of 1944 (the GI Bill of Rights), the government’s generous package of benefits to veterans, was drafted by the former legion commander Harry W....

Coffeehouses and Coffee

Coffeehouses and Coffee   Reference library

Michelle Craig McDonald

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...it to Mecca, Cairo, and Istanbul in the sixteenth century. From there, coffee drinking spread to western Europe: the first coffeehouses appeared in Italy , France , and England by the early 1600s and had spread across the Atlantic to North America by the 1680 s. These establishments quickly distinguished themselves from taverns and bars, pubs, and inns. Though almost all early modern public houses provided food and drink, and many also offered lodging and stabling, coffeehouses positioned themselves as business institutions by hosting currency-exchange...

Medicine, Popular and Non-Western

Medicine, Popular and Non-Western   Reference library

Cullen Clark

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...of mercurous chloride (calomel) to treat cholera. These heroic measures were often more injurious than curative and fueled a growing public suspicion of the medical elite, a suspicion in keeping with the overall spirit of Jacksonian democracy as frontiersmen challenged the establishment. Medical sects dedicated to rival understandings of health and illness emerged. Wooster Beach ( 1794 – 1868 ) organized the Reformed Medical Society of the United States in 1829 to advocate for botanically based medicine. This group morphed into the nucleus of the eclectic...

Benezet, Anthony

Benezet, Anthony   Reference library

Maurice Jackson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...fight against slavery and the slave trade. Benezet’s descriptions of Africa proved to be so central that William Wilberforce quoted Benezet at length in the great 1792 parliamentary debates on ending the slave trade. In 1775 , Benezet and others called for the establishment of the Society for the Relief of Free Negroes Unlawfully Held in Bondage. This was one of the first abolitionist societies dedicated to ending slavery and the slave trade. In 1784 , a few months before his death, the society was reformed as the Pennsylvania Society for...

B’nai B’rith

B’nai B’rith   Reference library

Katherine Rosenblatt

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...and by providing relief to Jews overseas. At the same time, the B’nai B’rith became the spokesman for and defender of Jewish rights at home and abroad. A tradition of diplomatic intercession on behalf of Jews and in defense of Jewish rights peaked in 1913 with the establishment of the Anti-Defamation League of B’nai B’rith, which sought to fight prejudice and discrimination against Jews. In the 1920 s, concern for the anti-Semitism faced by Jewish youth motivated B’nai B’rith to create Hillel, a Jewish student organization on college campuses, and a...

General Federation of Women’s Clubs

General Federation of Women’s Clubs   Reference library

Sarah Kapit

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...the period from 1900 to 1920 . Animated by the principle of “municipal housekeeping,” or the idea that women ought to transfer their skills as mothers and housekeepers to the public sphere, affiliated clubs embarked on a variety of projects that included conservation, establishment of public libraries, city beautification, reforms of the education system, and reforms of government policies related to American Indians. In some states, clubs were actively involved in the struggle for women’s suffrage. After the Nineteenth Amendment was ratified in 1920 ,...

Jamestown

Jamestown   Reference library

Marion C. Nelson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Company was soon revoked. Subsequently the English prevailed over the Indians, but Jamestown still failed to thrive. Burned during Bacon’s Rebellion in 1676 , it never fully recovered. Jamestown has always stood for more than its on-the-ground realities would suggest. The establishment in 1619 of a representative legislative assembly inspired Jamestown’s later grand claims to be “cradle of the republic” and “birthplace of a nation.” These “Jamestown before the Mayflower” claims were always aimed straight at New England . Regional passions have mellowed,...

Lowell Textile Mills

Lowell Textile Mills   Reference library

Wendy M. Gordon

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...in 1810 and 1811 and proposed a new method for organizing manufacturing. Tried on a small scale in Waltham, Massachusetts , before Lowell’s 1817 death, the Waltham- Lowell system housed every stage of cotton production from cleaning to finishing in one massive establishment. When the initial experiment at Lowell proved successful, more associates began construction. By 1836 , eight separate firms were being run on the same system operating in Lowell. To staff the factories, Lowell manufacturers recruited farmers’ daughters from across New...

National Union for Social Justice

National Union for Social Justice   Reference library

Margaret C. Rung

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...public-oriented resources, creation of a government-owned central bank (and abolition of the Federal Reserve System), restoration of congressional rights to coin and regulate the value of money, protection of the right of farmers to a fair profit and of workers to organize, establishment of a progressive tax system, and protection of private property while controlling its use for the public good. According to its sixteenth principle, the NUSJ ultimately sought to force the government to prioritize protection of the poor as one of its chief functions. Louis...

Clergy

Clergy   Reference library

Kathryn Gin

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...The history of the clergy in North America begins with the colonial ventures of the Spanish and French in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Spanish conquests led to the establishment of missions in Saint Augustine, Florida , in 1565, and New Mexico beginning in 1598. The Spanish Catholic clergy hoped to both convert and “civilize” the native peoples. Though they were often insensitive toward native cultures, they were not simply tools of the crown: some also argued against excessive brutality and exploitation of native labor. Meanwhile, French...

Taverns and Bars

Taverns and Bars   Reference library

Madelon Powers

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...engaged in musical entertainments, while others played and wagered on such games as cards, dice, and bowling. As colonial resistance to English control turned to open rebellion in 1776 , many men looked to taverns as centers of political debate and action. In Philadelphia establishments, bitter arguments erupted over the merits of declaring independence, and John Adams met with fellow revolutionaries in a Boston tavern to discuss war developments. After the Revolution, the new Americans increasingly celebrated their freedom not with imported rum, but...

Utopian and Communitarian Movements

Utopian and Communitarian Movements   Reference library

Catherine M. Rokicky

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Fourierism, which criticized civilization and called for cooperation through the establishment of phalanxes. Centered on the phalanstery, which ideally would house 1,620 people, a number Fourier derived by doubling the 810 personality types that he identified, the phalanx depended on agriculture and light industry. Instead of community property, people invested in the phalanx. Men and women would practice free love. The Panic of 1837 and Brisbane’s efforts led to the establishment of more than thirty communities in states including Massachusetts , Ohio , and...

Planned Parenthood

Planned Parenthood   Reference library

Tamar W. Carroll

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...autonomy through use of birth control. Working with poor immigrants as a visiting nurse in New York City, Sanger ( 1879 – 1966 ) came to believe that limiting family size was essential not only for a woman’s health and well-being, but also for her independence. Through her establishment of birth control clinics and her national publications, the Woman Rebel (from 1914 ) and the Birth Control Review (from 1917 ), Sanger sought to spread knowledge of and access to contraception, especially among low-income, immigrant, and African American women, who she...

Steinem, Gloria

Steinem, Gloria   Reference library

Ellen Carol DuBois

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...to an entirely new level of activism. She used her beauty and notoriety to advocate women and women’s rights causes, as well as to support the United Farm Workers and Robert Kennedy ’s presidential campaign. A resident of New York , she nevertheless had most impact in the establishment of the handful of national-level women’s liberation institutions. In connection with her support for the short-lived presidential campaign of Shirley Chisholm , in 1971 she helped to found the National Women’s Political Caucus; she was also a founder of the Women’s Action...

Tuskegee University

Tuskegee University   Reference library

Dana R. Chandler

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...the school donated land for the Tuskegee Veterans Administration Hospital ( 1923 ), the first and only such hospital staffed by black professionals. Moton continued the institutional relationship with financiers such as Julius Rosenwald ( 1862 – 1932 ), which led to the establishment of a foundation specifically to fund programs for underprivileged portions of society and the education of African Americans. Frederick D. Patterson ( 1901 – 1988 ) was Tuskegee’s third president, serving from 1935 to 1953 . In 1944 he founded Tuskegee’s School of...

Vaudeville

Vaudeville   Reference library

Sean P. Holmes

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...of class, race, and ethnicity to a theatrical economy that was national in its scale and structured around the principles of centralization, standardization, and homogenization. Vaudeville’s roots lay in the concert saloons of mid-nineteenth-century New York City, drinking establishments that served up variety entertainment as an accompaniment to alcohol. Catering to a predominantly male and working-class clientele, concert saloons were incompatible with middle-class notions of respectability, and from the 1860 s onward they came under concerted attack from...

Wealth

Wealth   Reference library

Noam Maggor

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...many of them were artisans who had expanded their shops and become business entrepreneurs. Manufacturing offered robust opportunities for social mobility for enterprising artisans, but these opportunities were narrowing with time. Whereas the average urban manufacturing establishment remained small, often employing fewer than ten laborers, a growing portion of all workers labored in factories that employed hundreds and even thousands of wage-earning men and women. Overall, merchants and manufacturers increased their share of their cities’ resources in the...

Feminist Reforms in the Progressive Era, Maternal

Feminist Reforms in the Progressive Era, Maternal   Reference library

Elisabeth Israels Perry

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Associations (YMCA and YWCA). Coalitions sent representatives to lobby state and federal officials on maternal feminist agendas. Some Results of Maternal Feminist Reform Campaigns. Maternal feminist reformers achieved a number of victories. Especially notable were the establishment of mothers’ pensions, laws forbidding child labor, and agencies for female and child welfare. They also won passage in 1921 of the Sheppard-Towner Maternity and Infancy Protection Act. Mothers’ Pensions. Along with temperance, “child saving,” as it was then called, held a...

Hospitals and Dispensaries

Hospitals and Dispensaries   Reference library

Bernadette McCauley

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...from hospital administrations, began to organize in the 1950 s. In 1974 , federal prohibitions on striking by hospital workers were lifted. Financial issues were central to further hospital development. Greater federal involvement in hospital finances resulted from the establishment in 1965 of the Medicare and Medicaid programs, which reimbursed hospitals for the care of the elderly and the poor. In the 1970 s and 1980 s, as hospital costs climbed, many voluntary hospitals merged in efforts to cut costs, creating regional and national chains. The...

Missions, Foreign

Missions, Foreign   Reference library

Stephen C. Dove

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...up more than half of all U.S. missionaries. As early as 1822 the ABCFM commissioned Betsey Stockton , a single woman and former slave, as a missionary to the Sandwich Islands ( Hawai ‘i). As an African American woman, Stockton was an exception among the white missionary establishment, but her desire to spread Christianity abroad was not unique among African Americans. Beginning in the 1820 s, African American churches, too, sponsored missionary efforts, especially to Africa, where many of the earliest African American missionaries were also part of...

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