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Overview

Establishment

Subject: Religion

In ecclesiastical usage, the recognition by the State of a particular Church as that of the State. In OT Judaism and in much of the ancient world, religious observance was part of the ...

inspection

inspection   Quick reference

Isabella Wallace

A Dictionary of Education (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Education
Length:
170 words

... The process by which an independent, external evaluation of an educational establishment’s effectiveness is carried out. National inspectorates across the UK are: • Ofsted • Independent Schools Inspectorate • Education and Training Inspectorate • Estyn • Her Majesty’s Inspectorate of Education In addition to facilitating the improvement of education providers, the process is designed to provide information about the performance and provision of schools so that parents can make an informed choice about where to have their children educated....

nursery

nursery   Quick reference

Annie Woods

A Dictionary of Education (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Education
Length:
100 words

... 1. Until comparatively recently ( 2000 ), a nursery was the first classroom setting for 3-year-olds entering school. A nursery is more commonly classified as a day nursery if it provides full day care for children. Since the establishment of the Foundation Stage in 2000 , and the Early Years Foundation Stage in 2008 , foundation units within schools may incorporate nursery and reception children aged 3–5 years. 2. A term used by parents, advertisers, estate agents, and magazines to describe a room in a house decorated and equipped with play,...

mechanics’ institutes

mechanics’ institutes   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Education (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Education
Length:
290 words

...institutes Adult educational establishments for working men (and sometimes working women) which were set up in the second quarter of the 19th century. The establishment of the institutes at this juncture in the country’s industrial development reflected employers’ needs for a skilled workforce at least as much as it served to meet the workers’ aspirations to learning and self-improvement. The institutes provided elements of a general education as well as work-related skills. Classes were held in the evenings, and those who attended usually came there...

Tomlinson Report (1996)

Tomlinson Report (1996)   Quick reference

Viv Channing and Karl Aubrey

A Dictionary of Education (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Education
Length:
235 words

...should operate regardless of age, gender, ethnicity, or disability. The Report envisaged that such a focus on inclusive learning would improve the quality of learner experience for students with difficulties or disabilities, and, indeed, change the culture of educational establishments by focusing on planning with and supporting the needs of individuals. Viv Channing , Karl Aubrey...

academy

academy   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Education (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Education
Length:
715 words

...other, competing schools to raise their own standards. To become an academy, a school was required to raise up to £2 million in private sponsorship. The government then contributed a further sum—usually in the region of £25 million—towards the school’s start-up costs. The establishment of an academy sometimes involved the demolition and replacement of old school buildings on existing sites; or the creation of an entirely new school. The influence, expertise, and business acumen of external sponsors was, it was argued, vital to the regeneration and...

Teacher Education in Russia

Teacher Education in Russia   Reference library

Roza Valeeva and Aydar Kalimullin

Oxford Encyclopedia of Global Perspectives on Teacher Education

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Education
Length:
7,229 words

...colleges and technical schools (technicums); 160 state higher education institutions; 81 pedagogical institutes and universities (including 2 professional pedagogical higher education establishments); 5 state-funded higher education establishments; 61 state (“classical”) universities; 30 industrial (field-specific) higher education establishments; 94 educational organizations that facilitate advanced professional development and retraining for educators; an academy of advanced professional development and retraining for educators; 3 institutes...

Reggio Emilia

Reggio Emilia   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Education (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Education
Length:
1,070 words

...the comparative poverty of southern Italy to the more prosperous industrial north, including the district of Reggio Emilia. The care and education of children whose parents were both working outside the home was of major parental concern, and so provided added impetus to the establishment of pre-schools which were run as cooperative ventures with heavy parental involvement. Indeed, the importance of parental involvement is a central element of the Reggio Emilia approach. Parents are accorded respect as the child’s initial teacher, and are involved in every...

Teacher Quality in Singapore

Teacher Quality in Singapore   Reference library

Sylvia Chong and Saravanan Gopinathan

Oxford Encyclopedia of Global Perspectives on Teacher Education

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Education
Length:
5,851 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the challenges of post-elementary schooling. A further strengthening of teacher preparation came with the transformation of the Teachers Training College (TTC) into the Institute of Education (IE), whose mission was to prepare both primary and secondary school teachers. IE’s establishment marked the beginning of a commitment to quality via “full time preparation, rigour and standardization” ( Chen & Koay, 2010 ). 1978–1997. The first challenge to such an ambitious education reform agenda was going to be the challenge of implementation. While the money was found...

Teacher Education in Singapore

Teacher Education in Singapore   Reference library

Jason Loh and Guangwei Hu

Oxford Encyclopedia of Global Perspectives on Teacher Education

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Education
Length:
9,392 words

...in the establishment of the institute was announced. It was only on April 1, 1973 , that the IE was established to take over functions of the TTC, the former School of Education of the University of Singapore (NUS), and the Research Unit of the MOE. Even though NUS’s School of Education had a teacher education program, it had problems meeting its objectives: The student recruitment was low due to the high opportunity cost of studying full-time, unlike the counterparts at the TTC who were earning a stipend during training. As such, with the establishment of the...

Transforming Teacher Education in South Africa

Transforming Teacher Education in South Africa   Reference library

Crain Soudien and Yusuf Sayed

Oxford Encyclopedia of Global Perspectives on Teacher Education

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Education
Length:
10,286 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of teacher support provision at the local level (provincial education departments [PEDs]). 4. The establishment of an expanded and accessible formal teacher education system (DHET). ( DBE & DHET, 2011 ) The first task, the identification of development needs, was, for the purposes of this article, most critical. It defined five activities that would facilitate the identification of and the process for addressing teachers’ development needs: The establishment of a National Institute for Curriculum and Professional Development, the development of teacher...

Teacher Education in Australia

Teacher Education in Australia   Reference library

Diane Mayer, Wayne Cotton, and Alyson Simpson

Oxford Encyclopedia of Global Perspectives on Teacher Education

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Education
Length:
6,645 words
Illustration(s):
1

...across jurisdictions and engaging with key professional bodies Until the establishment of AITSL, each state and territory took responsibility for regulating the profession in their jurisdiction, with, not surprisingly, varying approaches and levels of maturity in the systems. An earlier attempt was made to nationalize teacher regulation with the formation of Teaching Australia in 2005 , but a strong national political push did not really emerge until the establishment of AITSL. In its early years, AITSL developed national professional standards for teachers...

Teacher Education in New Zealand

Teacher Education in New Zealand   Reference library

Fiona Ell

Oxford Encyclopedia of Global Perspectives on Teacher Education

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Education
Length:
6,963 words

...the establishment of schools came a need for teachers, and the colonists borrowed methods from England and established a pupil-teacher system. In 1877 New Zealand’s first Education Act made the supply of teachers a national responsibility, rather than a local provincial responsibility. This began the establishment of training colleges for teachers in Dunedin ( 1876 ), Christchurch ( 1877 ), Wellington ( 1880 ), and Auckland ( 1881 ). Associated with this was the establishment of normal schools (in the primary sector), which preceded the establishment of the...

Interviewing Elites in the Educational Field

Interviewing Elites in the Educational Field   Reference library

Maria Luísa Quaresma and Cristóbal Villalobos

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Qualitative Research Methods in Education

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Education
Length:
8,151 words

...( Gaztambide-Fernández, 2009 ), but rather a subjective affiliation that translates into the indispensable incarnation of the values and interest of their scholastic clientele. Thus, any excessive collaboration with the interviewees on the part of the authorities of these establishments could, for example, mask an attempt “to use the sociologist for his own ends by encouraging the collection of certain kinds of data” ( Weinberg, 1968 , p. 150), therein compromising the quality of the research. Researchers should be aware of this and employ tactics to avoid...

Qualitative Methodologies and the Life Course in Brazil

Qualitative Methodologies and the Life Course in Brazil   Reference library

Marilia Sposito and Felipe Tarábola

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Qualitative Research Methods in Education

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Education
Length:
6,238 words

...so-called sociology of youth, this article identifies possible approaches to this subject based on studies that have already been carried out, recognizing the importance of intellectual craftsmanship and sociological imagination ( Mills, 1965 ) on matters ranging from the establishment of research questions to methodology. With regard to researching young people in their varied forms of lifestyles and expressions, it is important to take into account that in this stage of seeking autonomy, valuing peer groups, and distrusting institutions, the circumstances...

Professionalizing Teacher Education Accountability

Professionalizing Teacher Education Accountability   Reference library

Diane Mayer

Oxford Encyclopedia of Global Perspectives on Teacher Education

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Education
Length:
10,116 words

...working independently of each other, such that the actual standards were then used in unrelated and differing ways. However, with the establishment of AITSL in 2010 as a national and government-resourced body, national standards for teachers and principals have been developed and consistently implemented. In the United States, the “reform mania of the 1980s” ( Bullough, 2014 , p. 483) involved the establishment of the Interstate New Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium (InTASC) and the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS)....

School Ethnography in Chile

School Ethnography in Chile   Reference library

Paulina Paulina Contreras, Cruz G. Eduardo Santa, Jenny Assaél, and Andrea Valdivia

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Qualitative Research Methods in Education

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Education
Length:
7,979 words

...Previous evidence showed that, when participation was constrained by the rigid framework prescribed by public policy, students’ prominence diluted, and the student council appeared as meaningless. Ethnographic reports showed scant autonomy of student organizations in some establishments located in low-income outskirt sectors. Prestigious traditional secondary schools, however, had active student councils, made possible by overwhelming the institutionalism, that is, the purposes prescribed by regulations and the schools’ authorities. This led to an...

Navigating Kaupapa Māori Fields of Knowledge

Navigating Kaupapa Māori Fields of Knowledge   Reference library

Angus Macfarlane, Sonja Macfarlane, and Toby Curtis

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Qualitative Research Methods in Education

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Education
Length:
8,603 words
Illustration(s):
3

...their own lifestyles, language and culture while also enhancing life chances, access to power and equality of opportunity” (p. 5). Building on the sound platform established by the Māori boarding schools, and since the establishment of the first Kōhanga Reo in 1982 , the growth of this movement has resulted in the establishment of a number of Kōhanga Reo across the breadth of Aotearoa New Zealand, in both rural and urban communities. 2 Kōhanga Reo are bound by their underpinning philosophy that provides for the nurturing and revitalizing of the...

The Influence of Pedagogical Entrepreneurship in Teacher Education

The Influence of Pedagogical Entrepreneurship in Teacher Education   Reference library

Frode Olav Haara and Eirik S. Jenssen

Oxford Encyclopedia of Global Perspectives on Teacher Education

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Education
Length:
7,825 words

...to be stimulated and developed in a way that encourages innovation in both work and social situations. Accordingly, education systems are encouraged to develop qualifications that provide a foundation for the use of resources in a productive and meaningful manner. Through the establishment of such a perspective, entrepreneurship is given a teaching and learning context that defines the area of pedagogical entrepreneurship. Action-Oriented Teaching and Learning in a Social Context. Røe Ødegård ( 2003 ) attempted to define pedagogical entrepreneurship as action-oriented...

Teacher Education and Lesson Study

Teacher Education and Lesson Study   Reference library

Peter Dudley

Oxford Encyclopedia of Global Perspectives on Teacher Education

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Education
Length:
7,597 words
Illustration(s):
1

...their pupils and is also adopted into subsequent practice. There are a number of variants of LS that have developed over the years in Japan and the rest of the world. The following components are core to Lesson Study ( Norwich, 2018 ; Takahashi & McDougal, 2016 ). • Establishment of a focus for the Lesson Study—what people want to improve. • Formation of a Lesson Study group. • Identification of the role of an expert in the area of focus who may act as a consultant to the Lesson Study group, attend the final “research lesson,” and provide commentary...

Ethnography Across Borders

Ethnography Across Borders   Reference library

Marta Sánchez

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Qualitative Research Methods in Education

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Education
Length:
10,921 words

...centers for final deportation. This constant zig-zagging movement of foreign nationals across distinct national regions and jails—the Eastern Seaboard, the Midwest, and so on—puts on display U.S. domination over its proverbial neighbor to the south and allows for the establishment and reinforcement of new borders ( Manos, 2016 ). Other migrants in the United States create political power within the host nation-state. Rivera-Salgado ( 2000 ) discusses the “transborder political activism” (p. 144) of Mixtec migrants in California. Originally from the...

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