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Establishment

Subject: Religion

In ecclesiastical usage, the recognition by the State of a particular Church as that of the State. In OT Judaism and in much of the ancient world, religious observance was part of the ...

plant recruitment

plant recruitment   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...recruitment The establishment of new seedlings and small...

inverted U

inverted U   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...U A particular shape of a line on a graph, such as on income equality with per capita income; see Kuznets (1955) Am. Econ. Rev. 45 . Grote (2008) J. Econ. Geog. 8, 2 finds an inverted U in the establishment of foreign banks in...

invasion

invasion   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...The establishment of species in ecosystems they are not native to; see, for example, Russell-Smith et al. (2004) J. Biogeog. 31, 8 on the invasion of rain forest into eucalyptus woodland in Australia. Campbell et al. (2002) J. Biogeog. 29, 4 outline a methodology which might be able to be used to predict invasions by alien plant species. ‘Humans cause invasions, humans perceive invasions, and humans must decide whether, when, where and how to manage invasions’ ( Richardson et al. (2008) PHG 32, 2...

sand dune stabilization

sand dune stabilization   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...dune stabilization Techniques designed to prevent the erosion and deposition of sand include: the establishment of shelterbelts; mass tree revegetation using a synthetic water absorbing polymer; developing live hedges; and mechanical fencing. Shelterbelts were the most effective; mechanical fencing the least ( Raji et al. (2004) Env. Model. & Assess. 99, 1–3 ). Schwendiman (1997) Int. J. Biomet. 21 describes the three-stage approach in temperate climates, and Gadgil and Ede (1999) Land Deg. & Dev. 9, 2 outline sand dune stabilization methods...

Bretton Woods

Bretton Woods   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Woods A shorthand for the system of international finance created in 1944 with the establishment of the International Monetary Fund , the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development ( World Bank ), and the creation of a system of fixed exchange rates. This system lasted until 1971, when it gave way to floating exchange rates. In 2007, the World Economic Forum and the Reinventing Bretton Woods Committee ( RBWC ) made specific proposals for improvements in the exchange rate system that could help to prevent large, persistent economic imbalances...

military-industrial complex

military-industrial complex   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...complex In a nation, those industries that provide materiel for the military, together with the military establishment itself. As defined by M. L. Stackhouse (1971) with reference to the USA, ‘a specific set of impersonal, interlocking institutional structures, rooted in the history of urban industrial society and in the specific conflicts in America’s emergence as a world power. It is governed by generalized value patterns that transcend ordinary political ideology; it is undergirded by a matrix of personal, contractual, and fiscal...

riparian

riparian   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...topic, see Hill in J. Jones and P. Mulholland, eds (2000). Riparian vegetation dynamics are driven by allogenic hydrogeomorphological factors, with autogenic (plant-induced) influences affecting both plant dynamics and the river environment from the earliest stages of plant establishment, and becoming more important as landform stability is achieved ( Francis (2006) Area 38, 4...

border

border   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...A boundary line established by a state, or a region, to define its spatial extent—‘central multi-scalar nodes where power, place and identity intersect’ ( Kaiser and Nikiforova (2006) Ethnic & Racial Studs 29, 5 ). The establishment and maintenance of borders are crucial to the integrity of the modern state. States use a variety of mechanisms to enforce their borders, including checking travel documents, limiting border crossings to select travellers, and in some cases, building obstacles to prohibit unauthorized crossings. While in the European Union...

National Park

National Park   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...sites of particular scenic or scientific interest, and protected by a national authority. ‘Geography, and our identification with it, give us a sense of place. Geography also affects our national identity, and for many National Parks is the fundamental reason for their establishment as parks’ (United States National Parks Authority). There may be conflicts between the conservation of the natural environment and public access; ‘where this happens, priority must be given to the conservation of natural beauty’ (Lord Sandford 1974). Imrie and Edwards ...

biological invasion

biological invasion   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...invasion The establishment of species in ecosystems to which they are not native. Invasive species cause significant ecological harm: they can alter ecosystem processes, act as vectors of disease, and reduce biodiversity. Worldwide, out of 256 vertebrate extinctions with an identifiable cause, 109 are known to be due to biological invaders ( Olsen and Santanou (2002) Am. J. Agric. Econ. 84, 5 ). Simberloff and Alexander (in P. Calow, ed. 1998) estimate that around a quarter of the value of US agricultural output is lost to non-indigenous plant...

World Bank, The

World Bank, The   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...institution established by treaty and governed by public international law. Its formal title is the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD). The IBRD was established in 1944 by the Bretton Woods Agreement and is based in Washington, D.C. After the establishment of the United Nations (UN) in 1945 , the IBRD became a UN specialized agency. [See United Nations .] The World Bank Group now includes the International Finance Corporation (IFC), the International Development Association (IDA), and the Multilateral Investment Guarantee...

conservation

conservation   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...access to key natural resources; and Sundberg (2003) Pol. Geog. 22, 7 observes that the existence of democratic regimes and formal institutions does not guarantee that environmental projects will be implemented through demographic processes. C. Hambler ( 2004 ) favours establishment of an environmental fund into which polluters pay and from which societies can draw, such that those whose development opportunities are curtailed for global conservation objectives can access compensatory development funds. See Vogiatzakis et al. (2006) PPG 30 on using ...

Wildlife Management

Wildlife Management   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...young, and seasonal closure of hunting was the principal form of wildlife management until the late 1800s, when these laws were augmented by the establishment of protected areas (led by the establishment of Yellowstone National Park in 1872 ). Some of the private sportsmen's clubs developed into the first official state fish and wildlife agencies. Concern with depletion of wild birds led to the establishment of several bird conservation organizations, notably the American Ornithologists' Union (AOU) in 1883 , and the Audubon Society in 1886 , both of...

Wildlife Management

Wildlife Management   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...young, and seasonal closure of hunting was the principal form of wildlife management until the late 1800s, when these laws were augmented by the establishment of protected areas (led by the establishment of Yellowstone National Park in 1872 ). Some of the private sportsmen's clubs developed into the first official state fish and wildlife agencies. Concern with depletion of wild birds led to the establishment of several bird conservation organizations, notably the American Ornithologists’ Union ( AOU ) in 1883 , and the Audubon Society in 1886 , both of...

Jefferson, Thomas

Jefferson, Thomas (1743–1826)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...the Louisiana territory from France in 1803 . Although Jefferson did not live to see it, the formation of the U.S. Geological Survey in 1879 was a direct result of the success of the Lewis and Clark expedition. In 1870 another dream of Jefferson's was realized with the establishment of the U.S. Weather Bureau to institutionalize the weather-data collecting that the Smithsonian Institution had carried on informally for several decades. Bibliography Bedini, S. A. Thomas Jefferson: Statesman of Science . New York: Macmillan, 1990. Gillispie, C. C. , ed. ...

alcohol, geographies of

alcohol, geographies of   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...outside mealtimes; and a southern wet area, where wine is the main beverage, usually drunk at meals. Subsequently, European alcohol choices have started to converge ( Allamani et al. (2000) Substance Abuse 21, 4 ). P. Chatterton and R. Hollands ( 2003 ) see alcohol-related establishments as the driving force in recent city-centre regeneration; Roberts (2006) Cities 23 reports that cities at night now attract vast numbers of people. See also D. Hobbs et al. ( 2003 ). However, Roberts et al. (2006) Urb. Studs 43, 7 conclude that British free market...

Montreal Protocol

Montreal Protocol   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...period for developing countries (Article 5 of the Protocol), linked to certain objective conditions 5. An enabling provision for the establishment of a Non-Compliance Procedure (Article 8 of the Protocol). Two important elements were still missing, however, and were added via the London Amendment of 1990 . First, an extension of the grace provisions for developing countries (Article 5), in particular the establishment of a clear link between the provision of financial and technical assistance by industrialized countries and the implementation of the...

Forestation

Forestation   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...forest area from which the trees have recently been harvested or removed by natural disturbance (e.g., fire, insects, wind, disease, or landslide). The term implies forest replacement by some means other than natural regeneration (natural seed-fall, germination, and seedling establishment). Afforestation is forestation on lands that have not previously supported forest plant communities, or not for a long time. Forestation is undertaken when the natural processes of forest renewal are not working, are expected to work unacceptably slowly, or will result in a...

Global Environment Facility

Global Environment Facility   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...for Environmental Aid: Pitfalls and Promise , edited by R. Keohane and M. Levy . Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1996, pp. 55–87. Analyzes the interests and interactions of the GEF's key stakeholders during the GEF's establishment, pilot phase, and restructuring negotiations. Global Environment Facility. Instrument for the Establishment of the Restructured Global Environment Facility . Washington, D.C.: Global Environment Facility, 1994. As the GEF's “constitution”, the Instrument defines the roles and responsibilities of the GEF Assembly, Council,...

Greenpeace

Greenpeace   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...in public opinion and tracing governmental policy changes directly back to efforts of particular activists, organizations, and campaigns. Nonetheless, there is some scholarly consensus that Greenpeace has had a significant influence on a number of issues. These include the establishment of the Basel Convention, which bans the exportation of toxic waste material from Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) to non-OECD countries, the strengthening of the International Whaling Commission′s moratorium on commercial whaling, and the...

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