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Establishment

Subject: Religion

In ecclesiastical usage, the recognition by the State of a particular Church as that of the State. In OT Judaism and in much of the ancient world, religious observance was part of the ...

zoology

zoology   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
937 words

...these common notions and tools—together with the widely perceived significance for culture at large of the areas of disagreement within the science of animals—helped zoologists to establish a new, powerful academic field. Among the milestones in its development were the establishment in 1848 of the Zeitschrift für Wissenschaftliche Zoologie by Rudolf Albert von Kölliker , the creation in 1826 of the Zoological Society that ran the London zoo (soon imitated by similar societies elsewhere), the foundation in 1859 of the Museum of Comparative Zoology...

government

government   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
1,948 words

...in France and other modernizing countries. The new Soviet Union forged associations of scientists to support the nation's rapid industrialization. Germany used its Russian connections to help rebuild its own scientific establishment, damaged by the war and postwar inflation and boycotted by the Allied scientific establishments. The totalitarian policies of Hitler and Stalin, in particular the Nazis' anti-Semitic measures, required alignment of scientific concepts with political ideology. While many scientists emigrated as a conseqence, the continuing...

radar

radar   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
517 words

...all of the major combatants had mobilized their best scientific and engineering talent into developing a huge range of radar sets, for use in every type of military fixed installation, vehicle, aircraft, and ship. The leading laboratories were the Telecommunications Research Establishment (England), Telefunken and GEMA (Germany), the Radiophysics Lab (Australia), and the MIT Radiation Lab (United States)—the resources poured into radar research by the United States were second only to those used to develop an atomic bomb. After the war, the electronics and...

institute

institute   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
1,214 words

...a limited degree, for research. Their maintenance required workrooms; their use for instructional demonstrations, lecture rooms. Initially privately owned, cabinets were placed on the university (state) budget by 1850 . The evolution of cabinet to institute depended upon the establishment of university laboratories and the inauguration of the professorial research ethos in the early nineteenth century. Institutes were thus the principal venue through which the manual practices associated with experimental research became a regular part of university instruction...

standardization

standardization   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
1,536 words

.... In a narrow sense, standardization refers to the establishment of specifications for the measurement, design, and performance of scientific and technological processes and products, enforced either voluntarily or by some authority. In a broader sense, the term “standardization” may be used to characterize wide-ranging historical movements in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, on par with terms like “nationalism” and “liberalism.” The origins of the modern movements of standardization may be traced to the eighteenth century, when a...

Bohr Institute

Bohr Institute   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
593 words

...The Niels Bohr Institute, given its present name in 1965 in commemoration of the eightieth birthday of the Danish physicist Niels Bohr , was inaugurated in 1921 as Copenhagen University's Institute for Theoretical Physics. Like Bohr's professorship created in 1916 , its establishment was promoted by a group of influential friends both at home and abroad. In his inaugural speech Bohr explained that the purposes of the new institute were to test experimentally the predictions of the new field of atomic physics and to accommodate young scientists from all...

chromosome

chromosome   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
610 words

...contents of the germ cells, and thus yielded variations among the offspring upon which natural selection could act. Before the turn of the century a number of Weismann's interpretations of the cytological evidence had to be revised or withdrawn. Most important was the establishment of the doctrine of the “individuality of the chromosomes,” first enunciated by Carl Rabl in 1885 and established by the classic experiments of Theodor Boveri in 1902 . The same chromosomes persist from one mitosis to another, their loss of identity following cell...

field

field   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
513 words

...in assuming the existence of forces acting at a distance without the intervention of some material entity. Fields thus serve many of the functions of ether theories, which received their fullest development during the first half of the nineteenth century following the establishment of the wave theory of light by Augustin-Jean Fresnel . Michael Faraday introduced the term “field” into natural philosophy on 7 November 1845 , following his discovery of the magneto-optical effect and diamagnetism. He used the term operationally, in analogy to a field of...

magneto-optics

magneto-optics   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
646 words

...distance proportional to e / m . Zeeman confirmed the prediction and deduced the value of e / m . It came out close to the number that Joseph John Thomson had found for the ratio of charge to mass of cathode-ray particles. The “Zeeman effect” played a major part in the establishment of the electron as a building block of matter. Zeeman and Lorentz shared the Nobel Prize for physics in 1902 . Most Zeeman patterns differ from Lorentz's triplet. Explaining quartets, quintets, and so on proved too much for both classical and early quantum theories of ...

meteorological station

meteorological station   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
572 words

...for storm warnings and organized under a maritime agency. These networks revolutionized meteorology, furnishing immediate weather information on a continental scope ( See Meteorology ). The last quarter-century saw renewed emphasis on precision and standardization and the establishment of national weather services. In the 1890s kites, balloons, and mountain stations offered early glimpses into the three-dimensional structure of the atmosphere. The airplane increased this knowledge while multiplying requirements for upper-air forecasting. The much denser...

national parks and nature reserves

national parks and nature reserves   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
603 words

...parks and nature reserves . The establishment of national parks as areas of land set aside for public use originated in the United States during the second half of the nineteenth century. The concept responded to the cultural influence of the nature romantics and transcendentalists, the environmental effects of rapid industrialization, the unveiling of spectacular, unspoiled landscapes in the rapid westward expansion of the United States, the rise of tourism, the negative example of the ruthless commercial exploitation of Niagara Falls, and businesses,...

network and virtual college

network and virtual college   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
557 words

...“republic of letters,” independent of local power and constraints, has been a frequent claim of savants, and especially natural philosophers and scientists, since the Renaissance. In the 1660s the early scientific societies tried to implement the claim: they presented the establishment of a regular correspondence with distant cultivators of the sciences as a prominent goal of their mission. During the Enlightenment that same claim, and the related notion that natural knowledge increases by being communicated, became widespread tenets, shared by the educated...

progress

progress   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
557 words

...of society, whose development he urged—passed through three distinct phases: “theological,” “metaphysical,” and “positive.” Comte's ideas inspired important sectors of the intellectual and political elites of the “Age of Progress,” and around 1900 played a role in the early establishment of the history of science as a discipline. In the meantime, some naturalists had detected what they thought were hints of progress in nature itself, and included them in the burgeoning life sciences of the nineteenth century. Jean Baptiste de Lamarck signaled a “power” in...

radium

radium   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
580 words

...from the new, insignificant, and poorly understood phenomenon of radioactivity as convincing. Although the spectroscopist Eugène-Anatole Demarçay had identified a new spectral line in the Curies' purified pitchblende sample, acceptance into the periodic table required establishment of a distinct atomic weight. Marie Curie achieved this feat in 1902 , after laborious chemical purifications. Radium took its place in the alkaline earth group above barium. Later it was assigned an atomic number, 88. In 1910 Marie Curie and André-Louis Debierne ...

revolution, restoration, and the royal society

revolution, restoration, and the royal society   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
580 words

...engineering. At the Restoration, London became more hospitable to intellectual pursuits, in part because those who had been exiled during the interregnum brought back new ideas and fashions from their foreign travels. Members of the London and Oxford groups proposed the establishment of a Royal Society of London for the pursuit of natural knowledge to which Charles II gave a charter in 1662 . Most of the society's ambitious plans for experimental investigations came to nothing. It had one signal success, however. Its Philosophical Transactions quickly...

Third World Academy of Sciences

Third World Academy of Sciences   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
521 words

...World Academy of Sciences is an autonomous international organization created in 1983 to promote science-based development in the Third World. The establishment of the Academy culminated initiatives of Abdus Salam, winner of the Nobel Prize for physics in 1979 , who was its first president. The most prominent among these initiatives was the foundation, in 1964 , of the “Abdus Salam” International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) at Trieste, which hosts the Academy secretariat. As a consequence of decolonization in Asia and Africa , beginning...

military-industrial-scientific complex

military-industrial-scientific complex   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
1,251 words

...be seized by thieves and eat raw barley!”—Aristophanes. In his Farewell Address of 17 January 1961 , President Dwight D. Eisenhower warned against “the acquisition of unwarranted influence … by the military-industrial complex” (MIC): a “conjunction of an immense military establishment and a large arms industry.” Since the days of Aristophanes, critics have accused arms makers of wholesale profiteering, of fomenting war scares to increase sales, of interference in political and military decisions, and of heating up arms races by selling to both sides of a...

oceanographic institutions

oceanographic institutions   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
1,507 words

...in the late nineteenth century. Norway channeled its marine research effort into specialist fisheries institutions. Scandinavian scientists soon perceived the need for more broadly based and coordinated studies of fisheries and related problems. Their initiative led to the establishment of the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea in 1900 . The ICES inspired the creation of national laboratories and a short-lived ( 1902–1908 ) Central Laboratory in Christiania (Oslo) that paid special attention to the development of apparatus. Until 1900 ...

shift of hegemony

shift of hegemony   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
1,561 words

...such manpower to aggregate in already overflowing centers.” Price's scientometric observations found detailed extension in a 1975 study by Paul Forman , J. L. Heilbron , and Spencer Weart , who set out to provide a comparative, statistical picture of physics at academic establishments around the world in the year 1900 , the eve of the quantum revolution. They compared physical size, budget, and staff of laboratories and institutes, as well as the literature output of national sectors. The information was assembled from a wide variety of published sources,...

terrestrial magnetism

terrestrial magnetism   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
1,565 words

...lines of equal magnetic intensity and isothermal lines and about interconnections between geological, meteorological, and magnetic phenomena. In 1805 he reported that magnetic intensity varied across the earth's surface. To plot these variations, Humboldt encouraged the establishment of a network of magnetic observatories. By 1834 the twenty-three European observatories had detected the phenomenon of magnetic storms. In the fifth volume of his Cosmos ( 1845 ), Humboldt summed up the state of knowledge of magnetic variation, distribution, and storms. In...

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