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Establishment

Subject: Religion

In ecclesiastical usage, the recognition by the State of a particular Church as that of the State. In OT Judaism and in much of the ancient world, religious observance was part of the ...

cluster sampling

cluster sampling   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Sports Science & Medicine (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007

...A sample from a representative group where it is not practicable to sample the entire population. For example, if samples of students from universities were required, one university could be selected randomly then a random selection of students made from within the one establishment...

physical education

physical education   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Sports Science & Medicine (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007

...(organic, neuromuscular, intellectual, social, cultural, emotional, and aesthetic) result from and proceed through, fairly vigorous activity. 2 A formal area of educational activity in which the main concern is with bodily movements and which takes place in an educational establishment. See also physical recreation , play , sport...

secondary identification

secondary identification n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...identification n . In psychoanalysis , identification ( 2 ) occurring after the establishment of an object-relationship . See primary identification...

counselling

counselling n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...advice-giving, but the dominant ethos is one of providing facilitation without directive guidance. Counselling psychologists work with individuals, couples, and families in a variety of settings, including counselling agencies, general practitioners’ surgeries, educational establishments, business organizations, and private practice. US counseling . See assertiveness training , client-centred therapy , co-counselling , disaster counselling , educational psychology , genetic counselling , Gestalt therapy , marriage counselling , offender...

political correctness

political correctness n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...to him as African American. See also ableism , fattism , herstory , heterosexism . politically correct adj . PC abbrev . [Coined by the US journalist Elinor Langer (born 1939 ) in the New York Times in 1984 , alluding to social conventions in the liberal establishment...

genital stage

genital stage n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...where he suggested that its roots lie in childhood: ‘The only difference lies in the fact that in childhood the combination of the component instincts and their subordination under the primacy of the genitals have been effected only very incompletely or not at all. Thus the establishment of that primacy in the service of reproduction is the last phase through which the organization of sexuality passes’ ( Standard Edition , VII, pp. 130–243, at p. 199). Also called the genital phase . See also genital character , genital love , pregenital...

Killian, James Rhyne, Jr.

Killian, James Rhyne, Jr. (1904–1988)   Reference library

Zuoyue Wang

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...of the Carnegie Commission on Educational Television and then of the Corporation for Public Broadcasting, devoted much of his energy to the establishment of public broadcasting in the United States. In 1973 , after President Richard Nixon abolished the PSAC over policy disagreements, Killian chaired a “blue ribbon” committee of the National Academy of Sciences, whose report was in part responsible for the establishment of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy in 1976 . [ See also Compton, Karl Taylor ; Higher Education and Science ; ...

psychophysics

psychophysics n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

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Current Version:
2015

...them. It is concerned partly with the determination of absolute thresholds and difference thresholds , using variations of three classical methods called the method of constant stimuli , the method of limits , and the method of average error , and partly with the establishment of psychophysical functions and psychophysical scales . Among its greatest achievements are Weber’s law , Fechner's law , and the power law , and one of its most important modern forms is signal detection theory. See also absolute error , ABX paradigm , catch...

Agricultural Education and Extension

Agricultural Education and Extension   Reference library

Roy V. Scott

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...colleges that existed by the end of the twentieth century were established under the provisions of the Morrill Land Grant Act of 1862 , which required that they offer residential instruction in agriculture. The Hatch Act of 1887 appropriated federal funds for the establishment in each state of one or more experiment stations to undertake systematic study of agricultural problems and to formulate scientific knowledge that could be presented in college classrooms. The stations were usually located at the land-grant colleges and commonly shared faculty...

Blackwell, Elizabeth

Blackwell, Elizabeth (1821–1910)   Reference library

Nancy A. Sahli and Elspeth Knewstubb

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...decision to study medicine was prompted in part by a friend who died of uterine cancer, claiming that she would have sought medical advice earlier if a woman doctor had been available. Following considerable effort and difficulty, including opposition from the medical establishment, Elizabeth Blackwell was admitted to Geneva Medical College in New York, from which she graduated in 1849 . After postgraduate study in London and Paris, she returned to New York City, setting up a practice in 1851 . She and her sister Emily ( 1826–1910 ) established the...

psychology

psychology n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...the mind. Many textbooks define psychology simply as the study of behaviour, or the science of behaviour, but that too is to exclude much of psychology: the study of cognition , for example, is concerned with behaviour only indirectly, as evidence of mental processes. The establishment of psychology as an independent discipline, separate from the disciplines of philosophy and biology from which it emerged, is attributable to the German psychologist Wilhelm (Max) Wundt ( 1832–1920 ), who stated in the opening sentence of his book Principles of...

Dentistry

Dentistry   Reference library

Daniel M. Fox

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...access to preventive and restorative dental care became an activity of government as a result of the hiring of dentists by state health departments early in the twentieth century and the establishment in 1919 of a dental division of the U.S. Public Health Service (PHS). The scope and influence of public-health dentistry expanded considerably after the establishment and validation by the PHS in the mid-1940s of a pilot program in Grand Rapids, Michigan, to fluoridate the public water supply to reduce the incidence of dental caries. The use of fluoride in...

Veterinary Medicine

Veterinary Medicine   Reference library

Susan D. Jones

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...through the 1930s (largely because of the Depression and the school closures), but this was reversed by the developments of the 1940s and 1950s: the establishment of new veterinary schools after World War II, the discovery of new therapeutics, and the rise of intensive animal production (also known as “factory farming”). Returning World War II veterans played a key role in demanding the establishment of new veterinary schools in state land-grant universities such as those in California, Georgia, Illinois, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, and Oklahoma and...

Hale, George Ellery

Hale, George Ellery (1868–1938)   Reference library

Hugh Richard Slotten

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...refractor, the largest in the world at that time. Hale believed large telescopes were necessary for progress in astronomical research, especially in stellar astrophysics. He played an important role in convincing the Carnegie Institution of Washington, D.C., to support the establishment, in 1904 , of the Mount Wilson Observatory in Southern California. The observatory included not only solar telescopes but also a 60-inch and, after 1918 , a one-hundred-inch reflecting telescope. Hale became a leader of the astronomy community in the United States. He was...

Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency

Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency   Reference library

Michael Aaron Dennis

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...name in 1972 ; hence the acronym DARPA. Sputnik’s October 1957 success created a panic in Washington, D.C.; among the many organizational responses was the creation of DARPA within the Office of Secretary of Defense Neil McElroy so that a single agency within the defense establishment would have supervision over advanced weapons program research. The new agency would do research and development until such time as the technology became operational and was turned over to one of the military services or was judged of little value to the armed services....

Parsons, Talcott

Parsons, Talcott (1902–1979)   Reference library

Robert C. Bannister and Elspeth Knewstubb

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...sought to construct a “grand theory” for social science. He drew on a functionalist tradition, proposing that society was a system made up of structures and substructures, each serving their own function in support of the overall system. In the two decades after Harvard’s establishment of a new department of social relations in 1946 , and notably in The Social System ( 1951 ), Parsons treated social structures in terms of the functions they served. He called his work “structural-functionalism” and “systems theory.” Beginning in the late 1950s, returning...

American Association for the Advancement of Science

American Association for the Advancement of Science   Reference library

Sally Gregory Kohlstedt

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...in Public Life Drawn from the Presidential Addresses of the American Association for the Advancement of Science . Washington, D.C.: American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1974. Kohlstedt, Sally Gregory , Michael A. Sokal , and Bruce V. Lewenstein . The Establishment of Science in America: 150 Years of the American Association for the Advancement of Science . New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1999. Sally Gregory...

Morgan, Thomas Hunt

Morgan, Thomas Hunt (1866–1945)   Reference library

Marga Vicedo

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...and inheritance, as well as central issues in evolution, would require better understanding of development and thus continued to work on fundamental problems of embryology ( Experimental Embryology , 1927 ; Embryology and Genetics , 1934 ). A central figure in the establishment of experimental genetics and embryology in the early twentieth century, Morgan published over 20 books and about 370 research articles. He received numerous honors and became the president of several professional scientific societies, including the National Academy of Sciences...

Rogers, William Barton

Rogers, William Barton (1804–1882)   Reference library

A. J. Angulo

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Dallas Bache, Louis Agassiz, and Benjamin Peirce, led to a constitutional crisis at the AAAS as well as disputes over the nature and character of the National Academy of Sciences. Rogers first began floating the idea of an institute of technology in a proposal for the establishment of a “School of Arts” for Philadelphia’s Franklin Institute in the 1830s and his “Plan for a Polytechnic School” for the Lowell Institute in the 1840s. Although both proposals failed to gain traction, they defined his interest in professionalizing studies in such fields as...

Berkner, Lloyd

Berkner, Lloyd (1905–1967)   Reference library

Hugh Richard Slotten

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...of their community. And as a government researcher, he was accepted as a leading statesman and policy maker. Berkner worked to maintain the involvement of the country’s scientists and engineers in military research and development after the war. He was instrumental in the establishment by the War and Navy Departments of the Joint Research and Development Board and served as the first chair. He also was involved in convincing the military services to operate “summer studies” that used the country’s elite technical experts to help define and solve military...

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