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Overview

Establishment

Subject: Religion

In ecclesiastical usage, the recognition by the State of a particular Church as that of the State. In OT Judaism and in much of the ancient world, religious observance was part of the ...

doubting

doubting   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
349 words

...is open to doubt; and, finally, there may be a malicious all-powerful demon who is bent on deceiving us, and so ‘the earth, sky, and all external things’ may be merely delusions. Cartesian doubt is not, however, an end in itself, but it is designed to clear the way for the establishment of a secure system of knowledge built on indubitable foundations. The questioning of accepted beliefs and preconceived opinions can be a valuable exercise both in philosophy and in science generally ( see common sense ). It seems, however, that to insist on indubitability as...

neurolinguistics

neurolinguistics   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
490 words

..., Jakobson 1956 ), the term neurolinguistics and more systematic application of linguistic ideas have only become widespread since 1970 . In 1969 , the neurologist Henri Hécaen and the linguist Armand Dubois declared the object of neurolinguistics to be, first, the establishment of ‘a purely linguistic typology’ of neurologically caused verbal disorders, and, second, the achievement of an experimentally verifiable correlation of lesion sites with the linguistic types. In practice, however, it has proved difficult to use solely linguistic criteria of...

Walter, William Grey

Walter, William Grey (1910–76)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
594 words

...work on evoked potentials for the rest of that decade was tragically halted in 1970 by a severe head injury from which he never fully recovered. Grey Walter was a pioneer and an intellectual leader of world renown, but he was never fully accepted by the British scientific establishment. He wrote some 200 research papers and a uniquely stimulating book, The Living Brain ( 1953 ), which attracted many students to follow in his footsteps. (Published 1987) Ray...

mesmerism

mesmerism   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,045 words

...a few grateful patients. Indeed his colourful personality and robust self-confidence created a distinct stir, first in court circles in imperial Vienna and later in the fashionable salons of pre-revolutionary Paris. Inevitably, perhaps, he incurred the odium of the medical establishment, and the French government was eventually led to appoint a royal commission to conduct an enquiry into animal magnetism under the chairmanship of Benjamin Franklin . Among its members were Lavoisier , the famous chemist, and Guillotin , who gave his name to the instrument...

catecholamines

catecholamines   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
811 words

...appropriate to these states. It is of interest that drugs which appear to have clinical activity in alleviating depressive illness are able to act by altering the availability of noradrenaline at the receptor level. Noradrenaline fibres may also have a role to play in the establishment and selection of normal synaptic connections during development and in the recovery of function after damage to the nervous system. The third main group of catecholamine neurons of the brain are those utilizing dopamine as transmitter. These neurons have been the subject of...

Sufism

Sufism   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
993 words

...came into being much later than teachers and schools, and they clearly resemble traditional orders in, for example, Christianity. The orders are therefore regarded as secondary, and few, if any, of their putative founders, famous Sufi masters, were really connected with their establishment. Their practices are mostly of a devotional autohypnotic nature, and produce conditioned states which are much at variance with essential Sufi theory relating to the need for individual and specificzteaching. Most groups which employ the name Sufi in the Middle and Far East...

Wundt, Wilhelm Max

Wundt, Wilhelm Max (1832–1920)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
858 words

...reductionist nor a dualist and that he believed that the field of application of experiment in psychology was distinctly limited. Wundt's autobiography, Erlebtes und Erkanntes ( 1920 ), gives a straightforward account of his life and career and describes in some detail the establishment of his Institute for Experimental Psychology. This narrative outlines in a most interesting way Wundt's relations with a number of his contemporaries, not least E. H. Weber and G. T. Fechner , both of whom resided in Leipzig and both of whom he came to know well, despite...

psychology and the study of consciousness

psychology and the study of consciousness   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
3,641 words

...of classical introspection—and a common basis for methodological critiques of modern claims for unconscious perception or learning. Furthermore, on evidence that attention to content is required for establishment of its memory, content of pre‐attentive literal awareness may fail to be reported because it lacks the attentional conditions for establishment of its memory. Given these assessment validity conditions, it has been more difficult to establish the absence of a conscious state than reliable, and even strong, relations of strength of the state to...

cruelty

cruelty   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,233 words

...stopped short of frank killing. Violently inflicted cruelty is the coinage of smash-hit novels, films, and TV series. The torture of animals for entertainment, a popular public spectacle until the establishment of humane societies in Europe and the United States in the late 19th century, continues clandestinely. The willingness of military establishments to develop technologies of cruelty as instruments of war flourishes globally, while the coercive forces of the state (and its opponents) use confessional and disciplinary cruelty for political ends. 4....

plasticity in the nervous system

plasticity in the nervous system   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,654 words
Illustration(s):
6

...by the part of the retina that has been removed (Attardi and Sperry 1963 ). A similar phenomenon of the precise re-establishment of connections is demonstrated when half the tectum is removed ( Gaze and Sharma 1970 ). In this case, it is again only fibres from the appropriate half of the retina that are found to have re-established connections (Fig. 3). This shows, therefore, that the factors controlling the initial re-establishment of the nerve connections are acting in a quite unplastic way; no change results other than that directly attributable to...

parapsychology: a history of research

parapsychology: a history of research   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,536 words

...early results in fact yielded just such sustained ‘above-chance’ scores and he swiftly claimed that he had established ESP as a legitimate phenomenon, or set of phenomena. As might be expected, however, his claims were met with considerable opposition from the psychological establishment. Were his subjects physically completely isolated from the experimenter so that information could not be passed over unwittingly—for example, by unconscious whispering or other non-deliberate cues? Were checks on the data and records precise enough to ensure that minor errors...

religion

religion   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,566 words

...shall have to face up to the absence of God. Nobody can give us directions. We are alone in the cosmos. But the history of religions shows that they have an uncanny capacity for revival, even when they have seemed to be most dead. Hinduism was at a low ebb at the time of the establishment of the British Raj, and it was thought that the educated Indian would soon reject it. But far from rejecting it, he has done much to reinstate it. Its strength lies in the recognition of different levels of spiritual development, and it has a special attraction for men...

smell

smell   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,276 words

...its long history. In the fashions that have surrounded perfumery, sexual attractiveness may be involved. Certainly in many species, particularly the insects, naturally secreted odours, pheromones, play a sexual role. In mammals, pheromones also play an important role in the establishment of territories: the ‘marking’ activities of dogs are well known, and in other species special glands—for example, the cheek glands of the rabbit—produce marking chemicals. In the mouse the sexual and marking functions come together—the female will ovulate after smelling a...

spiritualism

spiritualism   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,185 words

..., Sir William Crookes , Andrew Lang , Henri Bergson , Gilbert Murray , and William McDougall . Although both science and religion are concerned with the ultimate nature of reality, only in the case of spiritualism were scientific criteria thought to be relevant for the establishment of religious truth and falsehood. This overlap of interests and techniques is perhaps to be accounted for by, on the one hand, the concreteness of spiritualist claims and, on the other hand, the direction of much scientific research during the 1880s, which was concerned with...

gamma oscillations

gamma oscillations   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
3,806 words
Illustration(s):
5

...to bind distributed signals into functionally coherent cell assemblies ( von der Malsburg 1981 ). According to their view, only appropriately bound neuronal activity could enter short‐term memory and, hence, become available for access to phenomenal awareness. Fig. G2. Establishment of coherent neural assemblies by temporal correlations. (a) Visual scene containing two objects. The circle demarcates a region of the scene where segmentation is particularly demanding. (b) The TCH posits that segmentation is achieved by selective correlation between cells...

asylums: a historical survey

asylums: a historical survey   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,039 words
Illustration(s):
1

...be insane and that the nation was much moved by his sufferings. During the latter part of his reign the lunacy reform movement got under way. From the beginning of the 19th century parliamentary reports on the condition of lunacy followed one another in steady succession. The establishment of county lunatic asylums was prompted partly by moral outrage felt upon the discovery of the revolting and inhuman conditions of the insane and partly by the newly found faith in the possibility of cure. The committees submitting these reports consisted of well-meaning people...

drama

drama   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,466 words

...Drama may also crystallize class allegiances. Whereas Ben Jonson and Inigo Jones's masques ( 1605–34 ) appealed to an aristocratic elite at the Stuart court, trade union audiences cheering the plays at London's Unity Theatre ( 1936–75 ) were bonded by a common anti-Establishment stance. Drama has at times strengthened a sense of national identity: Shakespeare's histories are notable examples of this. At other times it has served the interests of the autocratic state. The setting up of the Comédie-Française by Louis XVI ( 1680 ) consecrated the...

asylums: are they really necessary?

asylums: are they really necessary?   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,335 words

...ill people are entering prisons and borstals in increasing numbers and people of previous good personality, whose offences frequently stem solely from their illnesses, are now being refused admission to psychiatric hospitals and are, instead, being received and detained in establishments.’ Furthermore, the same report refers to an assessment made by prison medical officers of the number of prisoners in custody who were suffering from mental disorder within the meaning of the 1959 Act. It emerged that ‘the prison system was then holding some hundreds of...

Chinese evidence on the evolution of language

Chinese evidence on the evolution of language   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,872 words

...would make it perfectly clear which sense was meant before the notion grew of ‘words’ possessing meanings in themselves: a notion that has given endless trouble to philosophers since, but which became necessary for human organization, government, and institutions, and for the establishment of laws. Two Chinese characters for ‘words’, now and each reflect this history. Each in early forms of the script contained which, by studying characters containing it and their meanings, can be identified as ‘a crying infant’ (cf. for ‘child’)—whence ‘complaint’, with...

education: theory and practice

education: theory and practice   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
3,123 words

...the very same education, so that neither their social nor their intellectual differences would distinguish one from another. During the 1960s, educational theory was predominantly concerned with such issues as these. The comparative affluence of the country, which allowed the establishment of new universities, also made it seem feasible to take the competitiveness out of education. Especially in the primary schools, the voice of Rousseau spoke again. Children must not be taught; they must discover things for themselves at their own pace. So an innate love of...

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