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Overview

Establishment

Subject: Religion

In ecclesiastical usage, the recognition by the State of a particular Church as that of the State. In OT Judaism and in much of the ancient world, religious observance was part of the ...

ESSON, Henry

ESSON, Henry (1793–1853)   Reference library

Charles A. Hobbs and John R. Shook

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

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2013

...to more closely unite with the Church of Scotland. Unable to obtain financial support from Scotland, they petitioned without success for recognition as an established church in Canada alongside the Church of England. This struggle and others involving Esson did encourage the establishment of the Synod of the Presbyterian Church of Canada in connection with the Church of Scotland in 1831 . Relations with the Church of Scotland continued to be unstable; by 1843–44 the disrupting schism within Presbyterianism in Scotland and Canada again engaged Esson, who...

CHURCH, Alonzo

CHURCH, Alonzo (1793–1862)   Reference library

John R. Shook

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

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...economics class. Church’s demand that all faculty help maintain the strictest level of student discipline, in an era when professors began regarding themselves as primarily scholars, made faculty retention difficult. Facing a mandatory university reorganization and the establishment of new professional schools, Church retired in 1859 . He was succeeded in the office of President by Andrew Lipscomb , and Patrick Hues Mell became professor of metaphysics and ethics. Church died near Athens, Georgia on 18 May 1862 . Bibliography A discourse delivered...

WHITE, Charles

WHITE, Charles (1795–1861)   Reference library

John R. Shook

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

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...of the World,” and “Literary Responsibilities of Teachers.” White staunchly defended the importance of classical and religious education. He wrote, “These three services for the west, the creation of eminent scholarship, the improvement and extension of primary education, the establishment of a superior and Christian civilization, constitute the grand design and effort of western colleges” ( 1853 , 224). Bibliography Essays in Literature and Ethics (Boston, 1853). Other Relevant Works White’s papers are at Wabash College in Indiana . Further Reading Appleton’s...

FINLEY, William

FINLEY, William (1803–1876)   Reference library

John R. Shook

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

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...and Finley was able to recruit Agassiz to lecture at the college in the early 1850s. In 1850 the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science was held in Charleston. At Agassiz’s urging, this enthusiasm for science soon resulted in the establishment of a natural history society and a museum in Charleston. During the late 1840s and the 1850s, the College of Charleston was the finest institution of higher learning in America located south of Philadelphia. The destiny of the college would be determined by political forces...

CRAWFORD, John

CRAWFORD, John (1746–1813)   Reference library

Richard J. Behles

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

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...textbooks. Frequently acknowledging Francis Bacon , Crawford advanced a neo-classic approach in interpreting the causes of disease. Keeping the Creator ever before his eyes, Crawford cited the courses of nature and its creatures as the foundation of all truth. The medical establishment’s contemporary reliance upon conjecture necessarily was erroneous without a thorough and responsible observation of the natural order. Crawford’s view of disease as a process intimately connected to the life cycles of the living flora and fauna around him was firmly rooted in...

LADD, William

LADD, William (1778–1841)   Reference library

Michael Ziser

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

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... illustrates, he always retained his pragmatic orientation to the problem of organizing against violence. By virtue of his 1831 pamphlet calling for the establishment of a Congress of Nations and a Court of Nations, Ladd became a leader of the movement to provide international bodies for the settlement of disputes between countries. Support for such plans was high in New England, where the establishment still grumbled about the disruptions caused by the War of 1812 , and the farcical Aroostook War of the late 1830s made clear the mischief that could thrive...

TURNER, Jonathan Baldwin

TURNER, Jonathan Baldwin (1805–1899)   Reference library

David E. Pfeifer and John Shook

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

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...botany, scientific agriculture, and the promotion of public schooling. By 1850 he was advocating a publicly funded system of “industrial” or vocational education suited for the needs of the working classes. Turner became deeply involved in this growing movement towards the establishment of land grant colleges. Although U.S. Congressman Justin Morrill never publicly stated that Turner’s ideas and activism were behind the 1862 Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act which established land-grant universities, the historical record clearly shows how Turner was a...

BLAIR, James

BLAIR, James (1655–1743)   Reference library

John R. Shook

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

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...Protestants. Compton sent Blair to Virginia in 1685 , and by 1689 Blair was Compton’s commissary for supervising Anglican clergy sent to Virginia. While ministering at a church in Varina in Henrico County and officiating in the capital city of Jamestown, he promoted the establishment of an Anglican college in Virginia. Blair then spent more than a year at the court of William III and Mary II , resulting in a charter in 1693 . The College of William and Mary was the second college established in the American colonies, after Harvard College. The...

GEORGE, James

GEORGE, James (1800–1870)   Reference library

David Puller

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

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...of Upper Canada and commissioned to pastor the congregation in Scarborough. The church grew under his leadership from about seventy members to two hundred and fifty and built a manse for his residence. In the community, George founded a temperance society and lobbied for the establishment of a public library. George led his congregation into Church of Scotland in Canada on 4 August 1834 and served as moderator for the synod in 1841 . During the 1837 rebellion, he led a delegation of men from Scarborough into Toronto to express support for the government...

MARSH, George Perkins

MARSH, George Perkins (1801–1882)   Reference library

Sean Brown

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

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...Marsh developed a distinguished political career in the Whig party. He served as a member of the Supreme Council for Vermont’s upper chamber beginning in 1835 and, beginning in 1842 , he served three terms in the U.S. House of Representatives, playing a key role in the establishment of the Smithsonian Institution. Finally, Marsh worked for the state department. He was Minister to the Turkish Empire from 1849 till 1854 and in 1861 he was appointed by Lincoln as Minister to Italy, a position he held until his death. Marsh died on 23 July 1882 in...

REESE, Thomas

REESE, Thomas (1742–1796)   Reference library

Andrew Black

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

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...revelation. He defended the importance of reason against overly enthusiastic piety but believed a purely rational morality could neither overcome human fallibility and self-deception nor shape the habits of a society’s less reflective members. He did not advocate the establishment of a single state church, but rather endorsed the government’s non-sectarian promotion of Christian learning, particularly through the support of trained clergy and church schools. His essay was widely circulated and earned Reese a great deal of praise. In response to his...

LATHROP, John Hiram

LATHROP, John Hiram (1799–1866)   Reference library

Kevin P. S. Tanner

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

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...John Hiram ( 1799–1866 ) John Hiram Lathrop was a leading educator during the nineteenth century, playing vital roles in the establishment of the University of Missouri and the University of Wisconsin. As the first leader of both institutions, he helped modernize higher education by emphasizing secular thought and organizing the schools around colleges of arts and science that emphasized the liberal arts tradition. Lathrop was born in Sherburne, New York on 22 January 1799 . He attended Hamilton College in Clinton, New York from 1815 to 1817 ,...

BLAND, Richard

BLAND, Richard (1710–1776)   Reference library

Karen D. Hoffman

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

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...of the general assembly’s power to enact laws, though Bland’s argument appealed primarily to the rights granted to Englishmen by the English constitution rather than to universal principles. Couching his argument in the appeals to the historical circumstances surrounding the establishment of the Virginia colony, Bland noted that Virginians were not a conquered people but were the free descendants of Englishmen and, as such, were “only subject to laws made with their own consent” (Bland 1965 , 319). Moreover, laws concerning the internal governance of the...

McVICKAR, John

McVICKAR, John (1787–1868)   Reference library

Robin Vandome

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

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...in art, poetry, architecture, and politics alongside figures such as Irving, Cooper, William Cullen BRYANT , and Albert Gallatin . As an Episcopal priest, a professor at Columbia College, and a wealthy businessman in his own right (he invested in real estate), McVickar’s establishment credentials were impeccable, and provided him with a platform from which to deliver his own contribution to American political and economic thought. At Columbia, McVickar (initially one of only three teaching faculty) taught across a wide range of subjects, including revealed...

SMITH, Samuel Stanhope

SMITH, Samuel Stanhope (1751–1819)   Reference library

Jacob Goodson

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

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...students who took their religious convictions seriously as part of their learning. Jefferson’s response confirms this judgment concerning Smith’s primary intentions, asserting that Smith’s proposal presupposed the continuation of the religious establishment in Virginia. Jefferson did not want such an establishment to have a part in deciding educational legislation (or any legislation, for that matter). Jefferson’s bill did not pass. Smith’s correspondence with James Madison was much more theoretical. It involved the free will and determinism debate. The...

WILLARD, Samuel

WILLARD, Samuel (1640–1707)   Reference library

Harry Clark Maddux

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

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...Colony’s identity as a bulwark of Puritan belief. He was also among those in the 1680s who advocated submission to the crown’s attempt to re-establish control over the colonies by its insistence on religious toleration. However, after the loss of the charter in 1684 and the establishment of the Dominion of New England, he increasingly found himself opposed to the policies of the crown. It was during this period (in 1688 ), that he began to preach his famous series of sermons explicating the Westminster Catechism. He would do so for the remainder of his life....

BRANAGAN, Thomas

BRANAGAN, Thomas (1774–1843)   Reference library

Alexandra Perry

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

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...their homelands. Branagan collected two volumes of his writings before he died: The Guardian Genius of the Federal Union ( 1837 ), and The Beauties of Philanthropy ( 1839 ). The body of Branagn’s work deserves to be recognized as one of the most prominent sources for the establishment of a link between colonization and the abolitionist movement in the early nineteenth century, which to a significant extent contributed to the formation of later nineteenth century abolitionist thought and policy. Bibliography A Preliminary Essay on the Oppression of the...

BUCHANAN, Joseph Rodes

BUCHANAN, Joseph Rodes (1814–1899)   Reference library

Judith A. Wiener

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

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...and the ability to unlock mental abilities and prevent and cure disease through the practice of both disciplines. In his various works and speeches, Buchanan expressed his strong views on the prevention of disease and his distrust of traditional medicine and the medical establishment. In an article in the periodical The Arena , Buchanan chastised physicians for getting carried away with enthusiasm for the germ theory of disease and instead, urged physicians to look towards healthful living as the way to prevent disease and ensure the restoration of health...

Cooper, Myles

Cooper, Myles (1737–1785)   Reference library

Derek C. Hatch

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

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...Relative to an American Episcopate” ( 1774 ). This document was signed by eight persons, but it is likely that most of it came from Cooper. Ultimately, though, it also failed to persuade the Virginia clergy (and consequently, other southern clergypersons) to support the establishment of an American episcopate, a proposition that gradually lost support as tensions mounted between the American colonies and England. Cooper went to England to obtain aid for the college in 1771 , but he returned to New York near the onset of the American Revolution in 1775 ....

CROCKER, Hannah Mather

CROCKER, Hannah Mather (1752–1829)   Reference library

Eileen Botting

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

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...education should be the same for both sexes. Reform of female education would eventually eliminate any appearance of systematic, innate differences in the intellectual capacities and interests of the sexes. In addition to establishing St. Ann’s Lodge, Crocker advocated the establishment of female literary societies in her Letters on Free Masonry . Crocker’s Observations also suggested that the freedom and strength of the American republic depended on the equal education of the sexes. Crocker was a critic of the oppression of women in the family. She argued...

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