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Establishment

Subject: Religion

In ecclesiastical usage, the recognition by the State of a particular Church as that of the State. In OT Judaism and in much of the ancient world, religious observance was part of the ...

Lagos Plan of Action

Lagos Plan of Action   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

.... Since global development strategies seemed to have failed, the LPA was therefore meant to be a homegrown panacea for continental Africa, with a focus on collective self-reliance and self-sustenance in regional and subregional development. A basic ideal of the LPA was the establishment of grounds for development and economic growth that were both self-sustaining and durable. It was the hope of the LPA that by the year 2000 , Africa would have established an African Economic Community. Further, the Lagos plan recognized the food problems of Africa and...

Mboya, Tom

Mboya, Tom   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
1,006 words

...the vast differences in the living conditions between Europeans and Africans and the racial divide evident, for example, in that some Europeans would not allow African employees of the council to inspect their premises. The opportunity for active engagement with the colonial establishment then emerged with Mboya’s joining the Nairobi African Local Government Servants’ Association (NALGSA), in which he rose to the position of vice president. Mboya increasingly was concerned about political developments in Kenya, and when in 1952 a state of emergency was...

Universities and Centers of Learning

Universities and Centers of Learning   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
2,294 words

...learning are seen as the engines of socioeconomic development in Africa today. Notwithstanding the diverse cultures and variety of historical experiences and colonial legacies, the development of higher education in Africa can be conceptualized in four phases antedating the establishment of private universities: the precolonial university; the colonial university; the developmental university; and the market (entrepreneurial) university. Each phase of development is closely tied to the prevailing sociopolitical and economic thought on the nature of the nexus...

Amin, Samir

Amin, Samir   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
1,190 words

...such as identifying development with the growth gross national product, or with personal incomes, or with industrialization, or with technological advance, or with social modernization. ( 1999 , p. 4) If it is agreed that Sen uses the discourse of the establishment to criticize the establishment, then much more could be said of Samir Amin, the Egyptian economist. It is important to locate the socioeconomic context that provides the ideological grounds for many of Amin’s theories. Indeed, the continuing marginalization of most regions of the African...

Herskovits, Melville Jean

Herskovits, Melville Jean   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
1,350 words

...including black and white liberal scholars who argued that black American culture was a pathological version of white culture with little or no African influence. At a time when most white Americans assumed black Americans to be inferior as a race and a culture, Herskovits’s establishment of the strength and complexity of African and African-influenced cultures was an important intellectual achievement. Herskovits’s research on black cultures showed the diverse influences on American culture, helped to transform notions of American identity from exclusive and...

Danquah, Joseph Boakye

Danquah, Joseph Boakye   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...It also led subsequently to his eclipse as the focal point in the successful defeat of British colonial government in 1957 . [ See also Akan ; and Philosophy , subentry on African (South of the Sahara) Philosophy ]. Bibliography Danquah, J. B . The Ghanaian Establishment . Accra, Ghana: Ghana University Press, 1997. Danquah, J. B . Akan Doctrine of God . 2d ed. London: Frank Cass, 1968. Okoampa-Ahoofe, Kwame, Jr . Dr. J. B. Danquah: Architect of Modern Ghana . Lincoln, Neb.: iUniverse, Inc, 2005. Akwasi...

Neocolonialism

Neocolonialism   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...exercised demographic and political control by means of superior military power and wealth. Colonies were seen as reservoirs of raw materials and cheap human labor, and as markets for dumping excess European manufactures. There were only minimal attempts at encouraging the establishment and growth of indigenous industries. Postcolonial relations between former colonies and the First World remain the same, with the same kinds of control still in place. Advanced technical accumulation leads to economic exploitation, especially through trade, with First World...

Black Power

Black Power   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
1,924 words

...of community. Education became a priority at all levels, from the individual’s quests for “knowledge of self,” that is, black history, to the struggle for community control of public schools, to the establishment of independent African-centered schools, to the demand on college campuses for Black Studies departments. Multiculturalism, the establishment of Women’s Studies departments, the Gay Pride movement—indeed most minority rights movements, whether on campus or in the wider society—owe a debt to the BPM for paving the way to a more inclusive American...

Women’s Movement

Women’s Movement   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
1,845 words

...the attention of the colonial government of Nigeria to the problems of street hawking, which exposed young girls to the danger of kidnapping and masculine sexual aggression. When the Social Welfare Office was established in 1942 , the Women’s Party joined the government establishment in compiling a comprehensive report of the social problems of juveniles. Postindependent Africa is characterized by the greater involvement of women in public spaces. The nature and dynamics of the women’s movement in postindependence Africa took a more dynamic dimension with...

Blyden, Edward Wilmot

Blyden, Edward Wilmot   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
2,577 words
Illustration(s):
1

...United States were thwarted by the refusal of Rutgers Theological College and several other seminaries to admit him because he was black. Blyden became Liberia’s greatest intellectual. He completed his secondary education at Alexander High School, a Presbyterian missionary establishment, where he would later on serve as teacher and headmaster. Although Blyden’s formal education ended on his completion of secondary school, and he turned down a chance in 1861 to undertake university studies in England sponsored by prominent English admirers, he more than...

Douglass, Frederick

Douglass, Frederick   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
2,131 words
Illustration(s):
1

...black republic. Douglass believed that the United States would do well to invest in Haiti, since it was committed to the establishment and maintenance of democracy and free trade, and that the relationship would serve the two republics well. Unfortunately, that belief would not manifest into a concrete reality, as Douglass was unsuccessful in persuading American economic and political powerbrokers to work toward the establishment of meaningful diplomatic relations and trade with Haiti. This lack of American recognition and support of black statehood...

Pan-Africanism

Pan-Africanism   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
2,198 words
Illustration(s):
1

...collective security and early-warning arrangement to facilitate timely and efficient responses to conflicts and crisis situations in Africa” (Protocol, 2002 ). In addition, the AU’s new development strategy, the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD), includes the establishment of a new African peer review mechanism. It is designed to promote good governance within African countries, seen as one of the best ways to prevent domestic political conflicts from leading to coups, insurgency, or civil war. In conclusion, the idea(l) of pan-Africanism has...

Scientific Institutions in Africa

Scientific Institutions in Africa   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
2,275 words

..., an observatory at Algiers. More serious institutional development occurred at the southern end of the continent. During the late 1700 s, naturalists from the University of Uppsala and other European institutions began building collections near the Cape of Good Hope. The establishment of British control in 1806 led to the creation of a number of fairly important institutions, including the Cape of Good Hope Horticultural Society and the Cape Town Museum, whose director, Andrew Smith, became one of the first Africa-based scientists to gain international...

Beier, Ulli

Beier, Ulli   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
1,301 words

...religions. Through interaction with Oba Timi Laoye of Ede, he was introduced to the Sango cult and other Yoruba religious cults. He established spiritual friendships with priests and priestesses of Yoruba religious cults. The Yoruba conferences he organized resulted in the establishment of a prestigious journal, Odu , which he edited, assisted by S.O. Biobaku. Yoruba poems, articles, and reviews, including contributions by Yoruba Obas, were published in the journal. Before independence in 1960 , Ibadan had become the cultural center of Nigeria. The Mbari...

Chilembwe, John

Chilembwe, John   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
1,013 words

...did not survive to explain his uncharacteristic actions, many different writers have attempted to do so. According to the nationalist historians George Shepperson and Thomas Price, who wrote during Malawi’s struggle for independence in the 1950 s, Chilembwe’s goal was the establishment of an independent Christian theocracy in Nyasaland, but since this had little chance of success, he hoped that in failure his rebellion would inspire future generations of Africans to fight for freedom. He wanted to “strike a blow and die,” thus becoming a martyr along the...

Clan

Clan   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
1,202 words

...many professed members of a clan are not strictly descendants of its originators because of assumed kinship created by ritual bonds. An African clan consists of more than one family which identifies with an apical forerunner. Legends and myths of origins attribute the establishment of clans to sons or daughters of the primordial ancestor of an entire ethnic cluster. Clans may also have been created by individuals whose members played historic roles in rescuing an ethnic group or shaping its destiny. Other beliefs hold that breakaways of families from...

Decolonization

Decolonization   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
1,142 words

...and earning higher wages and better working conditions. When nationalist parties took control of the new nation-states, many citizens were hopeful that the new governments would allow them to achieve these aspirations. Yet, as many African intellectuals have argued, the establishment of sovereign nation-states did not simply undo all that the European colonizers had done in Africa. Frantz Fanon, a psychiatrist, intellectual, and supporter of Algeria’s struggle for independence from France in the 1950 s and 1960 s, regards colonial inequality as a result...

Dhlomo, H. I. E.

Dhlomo, H. I. E.   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
1,097 words

...Dhlomo responded to the ideas of James Kwegyir Aggrey, a U.S.-educated West African intellectual who visited South Africa in the 1920 s. Among Dhlomo’s early pieces is an entry on Solomon Plaatje in T. D. Mweli Skota’s African Yearly Register , an important work in the establishment of an African identity. Dhlomo’s early career is characterized by “progressivism,” although even at the start of his career he is too critical of “European progress” to be summarily dismissed as progressive. Later, Dhlomo’s work carries a stronger Africanist bent, and he is...

Herodotus

Herodotus   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
1,031 words

...are on Egypt, which he saw as the progenitor of Greek civilization. Book I only mentions Egypt obliquely, focusingpon the history of the wars between Greece and Persia. Book II describes Egypt before the Persian Conquest of Cambyses in 525 b.c.e. , which saw the establishment of a new Persian dynasty (the twenty-seventh dynasty), which lasted until 404 b.c.e . Although some observations are clearly firsthand, Herodotus relies greatly on interviews with the Priests of Ptah at Memphis for reconstructing detailed historical accounts of Egypt and its...

Kagwa, Apolo

Kagwa, Apolo   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
1,015 words

...supported by Egyptian and Sudanese interests. Kagwa was converted to Christianity at a young age and remained a staunch Anglican throughout his life. He rose through the political ranks, becoming treasurer of the kingdom in 1887 while also playing a key role in the establishment of the Anglican Church in Uganda. When a civil war broke out in Buganda pitting Anglicans against Catholics in 1888 , Kagwa was the leader of the successful Anglican faction, a position that earned him influence among the British colonizers and the Buganda elite alike. When...

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