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Establishment

Subject: Religion

In ecclesiastical usage, the recognition by the State of a particular Church as that of the State. In OT Judaism and in much of the ancient world, religious observance was part of the ...

Ernst Tugendhat

Ernst Tugendhat  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
(1930– ).One of the most important contributors to the re-establishment of analytic philosophy in Germany after the Nazi period, in which almost all analytic philosophers had to leave the country. ...
Mehdi Ha'Iri-Yazdi

Mehdi Ha'Iri-Yazdi  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
(1923–99)Mehdi Ha'iri-Yazdi grew up in a distinguished family in Iran, and like them became a part of the religious establishment in the country. He was born in Qom in ...
Professionalization of Philosophy

Professionalization of Philosophy  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
Professionalization of philosophy, broadly conceived, might be understood to cover the development of philosophical education, the fostering of philosophic interests and the establishment of formal ...
William Warburton

William Warburton  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
(1698–1779),rose to be bishop of Gloucester in 1759. He was much engaged in theological controversy, writing with vigour and arrogance. He was author of The Divine Legation of Moses (1738–41), A View ...
William Harvey

William Harvey  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
(1578–1657),practised medicine in London and became influential in the College of Physicians. Harvey's discovery of the circulation of blood was announced in De motu cordis (1628; English trans. ...
Leonard Trelawny Hobhouse

Leonard Trelawny Hobhouse  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
(b. 8 Sept. 1864, d. 21 June 1929).British Liberal theorist Born at St Ive, near Liskeard, Cornwall, he was educated at Marlborough and Oxford. He taught philosophy at Oxford (1890–7), publishing his ...
Alfred Harmsworth, Lord Northcliffe

Alfred Harmsworth, Lord Northcliffe  

(1865–1922) Britishnewspaper proprietorBorn Alfred Harmsworth in Dublin, he founded the Daily Mail (1896), the Daily Mirror (1903), and bought The Times in 1908. His brother, Viscount Rothermere ...
cultural studies

cultural studies  

The critical analysis of the texts and practices of everyday life in contemporary society: an interdisciplinary enterprise involving both the humanities and the social sciences. Its territory (in the ...
Rabindranath Tagore

Rabindranath Tagore  

(1861–1941)Indian writer, who was awarded the 1913 Nobel Prize for Literature. In 1915 he was knighted but repudiated the honour in protest against the Amritsar Massacre (1919).Tagore was born into a ...
Sicily

Sicily  

A large triangular island in the Mediterranean Sea, separated from the ‘toe’ of Italy by the narrow Strait of Messina. It forms, with the neighbouring islands of Lipari, Egadi, Ustica, and ...
Israel

Israel  

After half a century of war and hostility, peace with the Palestinians seems as remote as everIsrael can be considered to have four main geographical regions. To the north is a hilly region that ...
Rome

Rome  

According to tradition the ancient city was founded by Romulus (after whom it is named) in 753 bc on the Palatine Hill; as it grew it spread to the other six hills of Rome (Aventine, Caelian, ...
Rogers, John

Rogers, John (1679–1729)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
117 words

...the former. Reflections on the Conduct of the Modern Deists ( 1727 ) is a response to Anthony Collins . Bibliography A Discourse of the Visible and Invisible Church of Christ (1719). Reflections on the Conduct of the Modern Deists (1727). A Vindication of the Civil Establishment of Religion ...

Grosseteste, Robert

Grosseteste, Robert (c. 1170–1253)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
152 words

...of his epistemology, where he gives an account of human understanding in terms of natural, and ultimately divine, illumination. Grosseteste also composed numerous scientific treatises, being one of a small but growing band who recognized the importance of experiment in the establishment of scientific truth. He was a pioneer in the Christian West as a translator of Aristotle from Greek into Latin. Prof. Alexander Broadie J. McEvoy , Robert Grosseteste (Oxford,...

Solovyov, Vladimir Sergeevich

Solovyov, Vladimir Sergeevich (1853–1900)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
164 words

...Influenced by German idealism, Solovyov saw development as a progression from primitive unity through differentiation to a higher reintegration. The world of spatio-temporal objects was created when Sophia, or the world-soul, separated from God. Reintegration requires the establishment of ‘all-unity’: the reuniting of the world with God in a kingdom of heaven on earth. For a time, Solovyov envisioned a theocratic utopia with all Churches and nations united under the Pope and the Russian Tsar. His later philosophy is more contemplative and less dogmatic,...

Encyclopaedists

Encyclopaedists   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
163 words

...manual of concrete ‘how-to-do-it’ advice of use to every worker in his shop. It also contained, through a complex system of ironic, and often irreverent, ‘cross-references’, a surreptitious challenge to the traditional authority of the Catholic Church, and to the political establishment as well. Publication was intermittently suspended by the authorities, but eventually permitted to see completion. The final edition of the work appeared in 1772 , and comprised a total of seventeen volumes of text and eleven volumes of technical, illustrative plates. Prof....

Tugendhat, Ernst

Tugendhat, Ernst (1930– )   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
213 words

...Ernst ( 1930–  ). One of the most important contributors to the re-establishment of analytic philosophy in Germany after the Nazi period, in which almost all analytic philosophers had to leave the country. Tugendhat, born in Brno as a Jew, emigrated to Venezuela, received his BA at Stanford 1949 , his Ph.D. in Freiburg 1956 , and his Habilitation in Tübingen 1966 . He has held professorships in Heidelberg, Starnberg, and Berlin. Trained by Heidegger in the Aristotelian and phenomenological tradition, he argues in an original way that analytic...

Renaissance philosophy

Renaissance philosophy   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
322 words

...regarded the medievals as idle sophisters writing a Latin that appeared barbaric by comparison with the courtly version contrived by Cicero . Throughout the Renaissance, works by classical philosophers were retranslated and new commentaries were produced. This led to the establishment of revivalist schools, the most important of which was the Neoplatonic academy in Florence founded by Ficino under the patronage of Cosimo de' Medici . Prof. John Haldane See also Aristotelianism ; Platonism . B. P. Copenhaver and C. B. Schmitt , Renaissance Philosophy ...

Serbian philosophy

Serbian philosophy   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
308 words

...were later cited as authoritative in such works as Lee's Zeno of Elea (Cambridge, 1936 ) and Boyer's The Concepts of the Calculus (New York, 1939 ). 1940s–1960s. The philosophical tradition was dismantled in post-war Yugoslavia by the communist regime. The official establishment of ‘humanist Marxism’ followed the 1953 ideological cleansing of ‘dogmatists’. The critical attitude of members of the ‘Praxis Group’ such as Svetozar Stojanović to the governing regime led to their dismissal from Belgrade University in 1975 . The international reputation...

Cornwallis, Caroline Frances

Cornwallis, Caroline Frances (1786–1858)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
321 words

...and Hebrew, as well as several modern languages; and in time she became adept also in history, politics, law, science and philosophy. Education itself, however, was her particular interest, and she campaigned hard both for the entry of women into universities and for the establishment of so-called ‘ragged schools’. Cornwallis never married, although she received a proposal from the Swiss historian Sismondi. She lived for long periods in Italy, and had a special fondness for Tuscany. In the end she returned to England for good. Literary success came late in...

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