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Establishment

Subject: Religion

In ecclesiastical usage, the recognition by the State of a particular Church as that of the State. In OT Judaism and in much of the ancient world, religious observance was part of the ...

Establishment, The

Establishment, The   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

..., The A term long used to denote in particular the established church of england , but now a popular designation for the group or class of people who have authority within a society, especially, in Britain, those who control not only the Church of England but the government, the civil service and the armed forces. It has a somewhat derogatory significance associated with reaction, privilege and ‘stuffiness’. By the ‘Establishment’ I do not mean only the centres of official power – though they are certainly part of it – but rather the whole matrix...

Establishment, The

Establishment, The   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of London Phrase & Fable

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

..., The An ironically named club founded in 1961 by Peter Cook ( 1937–95 ) and Nicholas Luard ( 1937–2004 ). Based at 18 Greek Street, Soho , the Establishment became a hot-bed of the anti-establishment satire boom of that era. It closed in 1964...

Establishment, the

Establishment, the   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable (2 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

..., the a group in a society exercising power and influence over matters of policy or taste, and seen as resisting change. The term is recorded intermittently from the 1920s, but in British English derives its current use from an article by the journalist Henry Fairlie in the Spectator of 1955...

Establishment, The

Establishment, The   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Modern Phrase & Fable (2 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...exercised … the ‘Establishment’ can be seen at work in the activities of, not only the Prime Minister, the Archbishop of Canterbury and the Earl Marshal, but of such lesser mortals as the Chairman of the Arts Council, the Director-General of the BBC, and even the editor of the Times Literary Supplement , not to mention dignitaries like Lady Violet Bonham Carter . henry fairlie : in The Spectator ( 23 September 1955 ) In the early 1960s, Peter Cook 's ironically named London club The Establishment became a hot-bed of the anti-Establishment satire boom of...

Gobelin tapestry

Gobelin tapestry   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

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Current Version:
2013

...tapestry So called from a French family of dyers founded by Jehan Gobelin ( d.1476 ). Their tapestry works in the Faubourg St Marcel, Paris, were taken over by Colbert as a royal establishment in 1662...

Plebiscite

Plebiscite   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...The modern meaning is the direct vote of the whole body of citizens of a state on some definite question. Thus Louis Napoleon ’s coup d ’ état ( 2 December 1851 ) was confirmed by a carefully ‘rigged’ plebiscite, and in November 1852 another plebiscite approved the re-establishment of the...

Reformation, The

Reformation, The   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

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Current Version:
2013

...The Specifically, the religious revolution of the 16th century, which destroyed the religious unity of western Europe and resulted in the establishment of ‘Reformed’ or protestant churches. It aimed at reforming the abuses in the roman catholic church and ended in schism, its chief leaders being Martin Luther , Huldreich Zwingli and John Calvin . See also calvinism . Counter-Reformation, The See under counter...

Bastille

Bastille   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...now bâtir , ‘to build’) A fortress, but specifically the state prison in Paris built as a royal castle by Charles V between 1370 and 1383 , and seized and sacked by the mob on 14 July 1789 , at the beginning of the French Revolution. As used generally of a building or establishment, the word implied prison-like qualities, the equivalent of the modern colditz . See also altmark ; inventors...

Bolshevik

Bolshevik   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Properly a member of the Russian revolutionary party under lenin , which seized power in 1917 , aiming at the establishment of the supreme power of the proletariat and declaring war on capitalism. The Bolsheviks were so called from the fact that at the party conferences of 1902–3 the Leninists were the majority group (Russian bol’she , ‘more’). The defeated minority were called mensheviks . See also bollinger bolshevism . Bolshie or Bolshy A contraction of bolshevik , used to denote a person with left-wing tendencies, or a rebellious or...

Campden Wonder, The

Campden Wonder, The   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...A local youth, John Perry , confessed to killing Harrison and was hanged; but two years later Harrison reappeared, claiming to have been kidnapped and sold into slavery in the Near East. The veracity of his bizarre story and the reason for Perry’s confession continue to defy establishment...

Cliveden set, The

Cliveden set, The   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...) for the right-wing politicians and journalists who gathered for weekend parties in the late 1930s at Cliveden, the country home of Lord and Lady Astor in Buckinghamshire. They included Geoffrey Dawson , editor of The Times (and self-styled ‘secretary-general of the establishment’), and Lord Lothian . They favoured the appeasement of nazi ...

Altmark, The

Altmark, The   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...The Formerly in the Royal Navy, an opprobrious synonym for a ship or an establishment with a reputation for very strict discipline. It derives from a naval exploit of February 1940 , when Captain (later Admiral of the Fleet) Philip Vian , commanding the destroyer HMS Cossack , entered Norwegian territorial waters to effect the release of 299 British prisoners of war from the German supply ship Altmark , which had taken refuge in...

Fasti

Fasti   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...In ancient Rome, working days when the law courts were open. Holy days ( dies non ) when the law courts and other establishments were not open were called nefasti . The fasti were listed in calendars, and the list of events occurring during the year of office of a pair of consuls was called fasti consulares . Hence, any chronological list of events of office holders became known as fasti . The surviving six books of Ovid’s Fasti (1st century bc ) are a poetical account of the Roman festivals of the first six months of the year. See also calends...

Flimsy

Flimsy   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...The white £5 Bank of England note, which ceased to be legal tender in March 1961 , was known as a flimsy. In the Royal Navy the name is also given to the brief certificate of conduct issued to an officer by his captain on the termination of his appointment to a ship or establishment. The derivation is again from the thin-quality...

Parc aux Cerfs

Parc aux Cerfs   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...was scrupulously kept concealed; but one girl, more bold than the rest, rifled the pockets of M. le Comte, and found that he was no other than the king. Madame de Pompadour did not shrink from superintending the labours of the royal valets to procure victims for this infamous establishment. The term is now used for an Alsatia, or haven of shipwrecked characters. ‘Boulogne may be proud of being “parc aux cerfs” to those whom remorseless greed drives from their island home.’ from Brewer’s Dictionary of Phrase & Fable ( 1896...

Terrier

Terrier   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Forces Act ( 1907 ) superseded the old Militia, Yeomanry and Volunteers on a territorial basis until it was absorbed into the newly created Territorial and Army Volunteer Reserve in 1967 . The strength of the Territorial Army itself has diminished in recent years, with an establishment of 74,000 in the early 1980s declining to about 40,000 in 2005 . Border terrier See under border...

Trinian’s, St

Trinian’s, St   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...to the screen in a series of films, the best of which was The Belles of St Trinian’s ( 1954 ), with Alastair Sim in the role of the headmistress. Searle’s own daughters attended St Trinnean’s School, Edinburgh, and this probably inspired the name of the fictional establishment, which subsequently became a byword for any lawless behaviour on the part of uniformed schoolgirls, real or...

Shape

Shape   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Shape of things to come, The The way the future will develop. The phrase derives from the title of a 1933 novel by H.G. Wells which chillingly predicted war in 1939 followed by plague, rebellion, the first rocketship to the moon and the establishment of a world government in 2059 . The book formed the basis of Alexander Korda ’s acclaimed film Things to Come ( 1935 ). Shape up or ship out, To Used in injunctions to improve performance or remove oneself/another from the scene. The expression originated in the US military in the mid-20th century. It...

Revival of learning

Revival of learning   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... scholasticism and ecclesiastical restraint. Its keynote was humanism, which demanded that human reason should be free to pursue its intellectual and aesthetic purposes. It was marked by the enthusiastic pursuit of scholarship, the investigation of manuscript sources and the establishment of libraries and museums, and received added impetus from the invention of printing ( c. 1440 ). Italy was the centre of this European revival, where it was in evidence by the late 14th century, reaching its full development in the early 16th...

Australia

Australia   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Among the cities, Perth is called the Swan City, Adelaide, the City of Churches, and Melbourne, City of the Cabbage Garden. Australia Day 26 January, commemorating the first landing at Sydney Cove in 1788 . The Monday following has been a national holiday since the establishment of the Commonwealth of Australia in 1901 . It began in New South Wales in 1818 and was originally called Foundation or Commemoration Day. Australian Capital Territory The name given to an area in New South Wales, of 939 square miles (2431 sq km), which is a Federal...

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