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Overview

Establishment

Subject: Religion

In ecclesiastical usage, the recognition by the State of a particular Church as that of the State. In OT Judaism and in much of the ancient world, religious observance was part of the ...

Republic of New Afrika

Republic of New Afrika  

African American organization devoted to the establishment of an autonomous black nation in the Southern United States.At the height of the Black Power Movement in the late 1960s, members ...
Hampden

Hampden (Canada, New Zealand, USA)   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Place Names (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...Hampden , Canada, New Zealand, USA USA (Massachusetts and Maine): named after John Hampden ( see hamden ) who supported the establishment of Puritan communities in North...

Lambert’s Bay

Lambert’s Bay (Western Cape/South Africa)   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Place Names (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...Lambert’s Bay , Western Cape/South Africa Founded in 1913 and named after Rear Admiral Sir Robert Lambert , commander of the British naval establishment at the Cape ( 1820–1...

Fujian

Fujian (China)   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Place Names (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...Fujian , China A province which, when it was established in 760–2 , had five prefectures. The names of two of them, Fuzhou and Jianzhou, were combined to give the present name. Linguistically, the name can mean ‘Happy Establishment’ from fú ‘happiness’ and jiàn ‘to build’ or ‘to...

Hofmeyr

Hofmeyr (Eastern Cape/South Africa)   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Place Names (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...Hofmeyr , Eastern Cape/South Africa ( Maraisburg ) Settled in 1873 and first named after Daniel Marais who was prominent in its establishment. To distinguish it from another town of the same name in the Transvaal, it was renamed in 1911 after Jan Hendrik Hofmeyr ( 1845–1909 ), influential and much respected leader of the (Dutch) Afrikaner Bond in the Cape...

Emmitsburg

Emmitsburg (Maryland/USA)   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Place Names (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...Emmitsburg , Maryland/USA Although it is thought to have been settled in 1757 , the official year of its establishment is 1785 . Samuel Emmit, a local landowner, was responsible, and in his honour the town was given the name ‘Emmit’s Town’. It has been claimed that former names were Poplar Fields and Silver Fancy, but these have been...

Warwick

Warwick (Australia, Canada, UK, USA)   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Place Names (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...Island): founded as Shawomet in 1642 and subsequently renamed after Robert Rich ( 1587–1658 ), 2nd Earl of Warwick, Lord High Admiral, supporter of Cromwell against King Charles I , and a Puritan who headed a colonial government commission in 1643 which led to the establishment of Rhode...

Altanbulag

Altanbulag (Mongolia)   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Place Names (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...Altanbulag , Mongolia ( Mǎimàichéng ) This town in Selenge Province began with the Chinese name of Mǎimàichéng ‘Trading City’ because it was a major trading centre with Kyakhta to the north in Russia. After the establishment of the Mongolian People’s Republic in 1924 the present name, ‘Golden Spring’ from the Turkic-Mongolian altan ‘golden’ and bulag ‘spring’, was adopted. Töv Province also has a town with this...

Cape Province

Cape Province (South Africa)   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Place Names (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...Cape Province , South Africa ( Cape Colony ) With the establishment of the Union of South Africa in 1910 , Cape Colony, founded by the Dutch in 1652 and ceded to Britain in 1814 , was renamed the Province of the Cape of Good Hope, shortened to Cape Province. In 1994 the province was split into three smaller provinces: Eastern Cape, Northern Cape, and Western Cape. North West Province also received some territory from...

Tartessian, Turdetan, and Iberian mythology

Tartessian, Turdetan, and Iberian mythology   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World Mythology

...the Romans , Celts , and others made their way to Spain they encountered Tartessians, non– Indo-Europeans who, influenced by Phoenician traders, had, like the Romans, adopted the goddess Astarte and who celebrated Habis, a culture hero who was responsible for the establishment of Tartessian customs. Another non–Indo-European culture in Spain was that of the Turdetans, who also worshipped Astarte. Iberians in Spain developed a cult around the somewhat similar goddess Tanit, a figure with Greek-inspired Artemis-like ...

Paradzhanov, Sergei

Paradzhanov, Sergei (1924)   Reference library

Benezit Dictionary of Asian Artists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Sergei Armenian , 20th century, male. Born 1924 ; died 1990 , in Yerevan. Collage artist . Sergei Paradzhanov was an avant-garde film maker; he made four full length films including: Fire Horses ( 1964 ) and Sayat Nova ( 1968 ). The anti-establishment nature of his work led to his being sent by the regime on several occasions to prison or labour camp. Paradzhanov also produced many collages Neo-Dadaist in inspiration. Museum and Gallery Holdings Yerevan (Sergei Paradzhanov...

Church and State, Separation of

Church and State, Separation of   Reference library

Melissa Rogers

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,599 words

...the Court’s references to church-state separation and its Establishment Clause doctrine more generally. In a dissenting opinion in the case of Wallace v. Jaffree, Rehnquist wrote: “It is impossible to build sound constitutional doctrine upon a mistaken understanding of constitutional history, but unfortunately the Establishment Clause has been expressly freighted with Jefferson’s misleading metaphor for nearly forty years.” The Establishment Clause was intended only to prohibit the establishment of a national religion and governmental preferences for one...

Beer Halls

Beer Halls   Reference library

Paul Ruschmann

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Americans, especially the young, quickly took a liking to lager. Beer hall proprietors, many of whom were German, catered to the newfound taste for lager. In some cities they built establishments with high ceilings and filled them with trees and plants in an effort to capture the atmosphere of an outdoor park—even in winter. Although they were roofed and enclosed, these establishments were commonly referred to as “beer gardens.” After the Civil War, there were an estimated three to four thousand beer halls in New York City alone. The largest, such as the...

Radclyffe, William I

Radclyffe, William I (20 October 1780)   Reference library

Benezit Dictionary of British Graphic Artists and Illustrators

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... Engraver (burin) . William Radclyffe the Elder was first and foremost a landscape engraver. He enjoyed great success in his native Birmingham, and in 1814 was one of the founder members of the city’s first art college. In 1821 Radclyffe was actively involved in the establishment of the Birmingham Arts Society, and in 1842 he played his part in the creation of the Birmingham Artists’ Group. His best-known engravings are from originals by Turner. He exhibited his work in 1831 at the Suffolk Street Gallery in...

Sydney

Sydney (Australia, Canada)   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Place Names (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...governor of New South Wales ( 1788–92 ), arrived and he renamed it Sydney Cove after Thomas Townshend ( 1733–1800 ), 1st Viscount Sydney, the British home secretary ( 1783–9 ), whose department was also associated with the colonies at the time. Viscount Sydney promoted the establishment of a settlement in New South Wales for reformed convicts. The ‘Cove’ was later dropped. 2. Canada (Nova Scotia): founded in 1783 as a refuge for United Empire Loyalists and named after the 1st Viscount Sydney....

Vanuatu

Vanuatu   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Place Names (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...mother and wife; he named the largest island Espíritu Santo. They were rediscovered by the French in 1768 and charted by Captain James Cook in 1774 ; he named them after the Scottish New Hebrides because of their fancied resemblance. Anglo-French rivalry resulted in the establishment of an Anglo-French Condominium in 1906 . Independence was gained in 1980 at which time the name was changed to Vanuatu ‘Our Land Forever’ from the Polynesian/Fijian vanua ...

Cuba

Cuba (Portugal, USA)   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Place Names (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...Place’, possibly a reference to its roughly central location in the Caribbean. From 1511 to 1898 Cuba was a Spanish colony. The island was occupied by American military forces between 1898 and 1902 and in 1906–9 ; in 1903 the Treaty of Relations authorized the establishment of an American naval base at Guantánamo Bay which still exists to this...

Pleasure garden

Pleasure garden   Reference library

Joanna R. Smolko

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
149 words

...garden . An open-air venue featuring entertainment, music, and food. With the establishment of a stable middle-class in 18th-century England, gardens were created, such as London's Vauxhall Gardens, as an entertainment venue primarily for tradespeople. These featured flowering plants, musical performances (orchestral and vocal), fountains, light refreshments (especially tea), and various entertainments. Emulating the British concept, American pleasure gardens were created in colonial America, in cities such as Williamsburg and Jamestown. By the 19th...

Elkan, Henri

Elkan, Henri (23 Nov 1897)   Reference library

Frances Barulich

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
169 words

...as a viola player and was appointed chorus master and assistant conductor of the Philadelphia Grand Opera Company in 1927 . In 1926 he opened a music shop in Philadelphia and two years later was joined by Adolph Vogel (a cellist in the Philadelphia Orchestra) in the establishment of the music publishing firm Elkan–vogel . Elkan became first conductor of the Trenton Civic Orchestra in 1933 and conductor and music director of the Philadelphia Ballet Company in 1935 ; he founded the Dra-Mu Opera Company in 1945 . He left Elkan-Vogel in 1952 but...

Little, Mary Lou

Little, Mary Lou (1922)   Reference library

Ruthann B. McTyre

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
163 words

...Mary Lou ( b Champaign, IL , 1922 ). Music librarian . Little earned the MLS from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Her first post was as music librarian at Milwaukee Public Library. She played a significant role in the establishment of Harvard's Eda Kuhn Loeb Music Library, working with Nino Pirrotta, professor of music and titular music librarian, beginning in 1956 , succeeding him as music librarian in 1971 . Having become an accountant, Little left the profession in 1977 . During her tenure as a music librarian, she was an early...

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