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Establishment

Subject: Religion

In ecclesiastical usage, the recognition by the State of a particular Church as that of the State. In OT Judaism and in much of the ancient world, religious observance was part of the ...

establishment clause

establishment clause  

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The 1st Amendment to the U.S. Constitution states, “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion.” This establishment clause has been used by the Supreme Court to overturn ...
ACOSS

ACOSS  

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The Australian Council of Social Service (ACOSS) is the national peak organisation for community welfare organisations in Australia. Since its establishment in 1956, ACOSS has fulfilled an advocacy ...
Eelco Nicolaas Van Kleffens

Eelco Nicolaas Van Kleffens  

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(b. Heerenveen, 17 Nov. 1894; d. Almoçagême, Portugal, 17 June 1983)Netherlandish; Minister of Foreign Affairs After law study at Leiden, which he completed in 1918 with a dissertation on the ...
W. M. Ball

W. M. Ball  

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William Macmahon Ball (1901–86) is a key figure in the history of political studies in Australia. His groundbreaking efforts at the University of Melbourne culminated in 1939 in the establishment ...
free exercise clause

free exercise clause  

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The 1st Amendment to the Constitution states, “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof.” Through its free exercise clause, the 1st ...
Sino-American Relations

Sino-American Relations  

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With the establishment of the People's Republic of China (PRC) in 1949, China's new leaders opted for a close political-military alliance with the Soviet Union. This was soon followed in ...
Department of Homeland Security

Department of Homeland Security  

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In the aftermath of the September 11th 2001 attacks on the United States, President George W. Bush announced the establishment of a Department of Homeland Security. The aims of the department were to ...
religious issues under the Constitution

religious issues under the Constitution  

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The 1st Amendment to the U.S. Constitution requires that “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof.” There are two parts to ...
neighbourhood nationalism

neighbourhood nationalism  

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Term used to refer to a form of identity politics that can embody both local and national discourses on race and nation. Common language and culture, and often a shared political cause (e.g. ...
State politics

State politics  

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The establishment of the Commonwealth in 1901 created the Australian Federation of which the six previously existing British colonies of New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, ...
Feliks Edmundovich Dzerzhinsky

Feliks Edmundovich Dzerzhinsky  

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(b. 11 Sept. 1877, d. 20 July 1926).Soviet politician Born in Dzerzhinovo, near Minsk, as the son of a Polish nobleman, he became a revolutionary for the Lithuanian‐Polish Marxist parties in 1896. He ...
Peter David Robinson

Peter David Robinson  

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(b. Belfast, Northern Ireland, 29 Dec. 1948)British; Northern Ireland First Minister 2008–  Dominated by the Unionist Party (later the Ulster Unionist Party, UUP) in Peter Robinson's youth, Northern ...
Stanislav Sergeyevich Shatalin

Stanislav Sergeyevich Shatalin  

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(b. Pushkin, Leningrad region, 24 Aug. 1934; d. Moscow, 4 March 1997)Russian; member, Presidential Council 1990–1 Shatalin was an economist working in the State Committee of Science and Technology ...
Adolfo Suárez González

Adolfo Suárez González  

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(b. 25 Sept. 1932).Prime Minister of Spain 1976–81 Born in Cebreros (Avila), he received a doctorate degree in law from the University of Madrid, and rose quickly in the bureaucracy of the Franco ...
functional representation

functional representation  

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Functional representation may be contrasted to the more usual form of territorial representation where a legislator is elected to represent a defined territorial unit and all the citizens who live ...
Nursultan Nazarbayev

Nursultan Nazarbayev  

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(b. Chemolgan, Kazakh SSR, 1940)Kazakh; President 1990–  Born of Kazakh peasants he studied at technical college in Ukraine and worked in the steel industry. He joined the Communist Party of the ...
Ali Akhbar Hashemi-Rafsanjani

Ali Akhbar Hashemi-Rafsanjani  

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(b. Rafsanjan, 25 Aug. 1934)Iranian; Speaker of the Majles (Consultative Assembly) 1980–9, Acting Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces 1988–9, President 1989–1997 Rafsanjani became a pupil and ...
Belfast Agreement

Belfast Agreement  

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The Agreement, arrived at on 10 April 1998, created the opportunity to restore a devolved, power‐sharing government to Northern Ireland for the first time since 1973.Endorsed by referendums in both ...
Lloyd Bentsen

Lloyd Bentsen  

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(b. Mission, Texas, 11 Feb. 1921; d. Houston, Texas, 23 May 2006)US; Member of the US House of Representatives 1949–54, US Senator 1970–92, Secretary to the US Treasury 1993–4 The son of a wealthy ...
Nelson Wilmarth Aldrich

Nelson Wilmarth Aldrich  

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(b. Foster, Rhode Island, 6 Nov. 1841; d. New York City, 15 Apr. 1915)US; member of the Rhode Island House of Representatives 1875–77, member of the US House of Representatives 1879–83, US Senator ...

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