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Overview

Establishment

Subject: Religion

In ecclesiastical usage, the recognition by the State of a particular Church as that of the State. In OT Judaism and in much of the ancient world, religious observance was part of the ...

establishment clause

establishment clause   Reference library

The Oxford Guide to the United States Government

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
147 words

... clause The 1st Amendment to the U.S. Constitution states, “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion.” This establishment clause has been used by the Supreme Court to overturn, or declare unconstitutional, state laws involving the government in religious activities, such as prayers or religious programs in public schools. For example, the Court used the establishment clause to strike down state government laws in Engel v. Vitale ( 1962 ) and Wallace v. Jaffree ( 1985 ). There is general agreement that the...

establishment clause

establishment clause  

Reference type:
Overview Page
The 1st Amendment to the U.S. Constitution states, “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion.” This establishment clause has been used by the Supreme Court to overturn ...
Church and State, Separation of

Church and State, Separation of   Reference library

William M. Wiecek

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
914 words

... ( 1997 )). Issues involving the “establishment” clause generally proved more controversial, however, evoking efforts for constitutional amendments to overturn Supreme Court rulings. Questions of state aid to parochial schools and released time for religious education ignited the controversy. In Everson v. Board of Education ( 1947 ), Justice Hugo Black adopted a strict interpretation of separation and imposed Jefferson ’s metaphor of “a wall of separation” as a canonical reading of the First Amendment. Establishment controversies nevertheless continued,...

Garvey, Marcus

Garvey, Marcus (1887–1940)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...of the ‘Back to Africa’ movement, which encouraged those of African descent to return to their homelands. Born in Jamaica in 1914 , Marcus Garvey founded the Universal Negro Improvement and Conservation Association and African Communities League ( UNIA ) to promote the establishment of a black-governed nation in Africa. In 1916 , he moved to the United States, where he created UNIA branches in New York and other large cities. Garvey’s doctrine promoted black pride and empowerment but also racial separation, which put him at odds with some other black...

Buckley, William F., Jr.

Buckley, William F., Jr.   Reference library

J. David Hoeveler

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
303 words

... Buckley himself did not develop a consistent intellectual conservatism; his opinions could reflect any of the varieties he welcomed in his magazine. Usually, however, he saw American conservatives as a beleaguered minority standing against a dominant and privileged liberal establishment. Against this ascendancy, Buckley defended a conservative counterculture and its tribal loyalists. Through his longevity, sustained productivity, and public visibility, Buckley served the conservative intellectual movement as a paterfamilias. [ See also Anti-Communism ;...

Nkrumah, Kwame

Nkrumah, Kwame (1909–72)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...he had lived as a guest of President Ahmed Sékou Touré . Since then, his nationalist achievements have tended to be emphasized more heavily than his political and economic failings, and he has posthumously received numerous national and international honours, including the establishment of 21 September, his birthday, as Nkrumah Day—a national holiday—in...

Rhodes must fall

Rhodes must fall   Quick reference

A Dictionary of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

... from the steps in front of the University of Cape Town ( UCT ) in South Africa. The movement began in March 2015 and came to be known by its Twitter handle #Rhodesmustfall . Fallists argued that the presence of the statue of Rhodes was inappropriate in an educational establishment in post- apartheid South Africa given the central role he played in promoting British colonial rule and establishing an exploitative and racist system of government in South Africa as prime minister of the Cape Colony between 1890 and 1896 . Following a period of intense...

Biko, Stephen

Biko, Stephen (1946–77)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...a member of the National Union of South African Students ( NUSAS ), Biko became frustrated that many anti-apartheid groups featured large numbers of white liberals, who he felt could not fully understand the black experience. As a result, he played a prominent role in the establishment of the South African Students’ Organisation ( SASO ), a black movement that was inclusive of Coloured and Indian South Africans but rejected white leadership. Inspired by the Black Power movement in the United States, Biko was determined to challenge negative perceptions of...

Mandela, Nelson

Mandela, Nelson (1918–2013)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...Mandela subsequently won the first post-apartheid presidential elections, which were held in 1994 , and kept his promise of only serving one term before standing down, making way for Thabo Mbeki . His presidency was marked by the promulgation of a new constitution and the establishment of a Truth and Reconciliation Commission to investigate human rights abuses committed during the apartheid. Mandela’s personal self-sacrifice and willingness to forgive those who had jailed him have made him an enduring icon of reconciliation, and he remains the best-known...

Christianity

Christianity   Quick reference

A Dictionary of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...including Burundi, Kenya, Nigeria, South Africa, Rwanda, and Uganda. In addition to Churches established by European missionaries, who have been active in Africa since at least the early 1400s, the continent features many African Initiated Churches ( AIC ): religious establishments created by Africans. One of the oldest of these is the Ethiopian Orthodox Church , which was begun around the fourth century. However, the rapid expansion of AICs did not occur until much later, when colonial rule led to much higher levels of conversion to Christianity but...

Alcatraz, Occupation of

Alcatraz, Occupation of   Reference library

Troy Johnson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
741 words

...occupation. Federal marshals removed the remaining protesters, nineteen months after Indians of All Tribes first occupied the island. The success or failure of the Indian occupation of Alcatraz Island should not be judged by whether the demands for title to the island and the establishment of the various institutions on the island were realized. The underlying goals of the Indians on Alcatraz Island were to awaken the American public to the reality of the plight of the first Americans and to assert the need for Indian self-determination. In this they were indeed...

Administrative State

Administrative State   Reference library

Williamjames Hull Hoffer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
2,652 words

...Bureau of Investigation in the Justice Department, and national security with the Espionage and Sedition Acts of 1917 and 1918 , respectively. During the New Era of the 1920 s, the administrative state was further expanded with the enactment of Prohibition, as well as the establishment of new regulatory agencies. These agencies, such as the Civil Aeronautics Board for air travel and the Federal Communications Commission for radio, helped foster the grow of these industries. The collapse of the economy into the Great Depression in 1929 posed a severe test...

Bill of Rights

Bill of Rights   Reference library

John P. Kaminski

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
1,417 words

...this incorporation extends the Bill of Rights is still a matter of debate. Certain of the amendments in the Bill of Rights have proven particularly contentious and have generated much litigation, judicial interpretation, and public discussion. The First Amendment’s ban on an “establishment of religion,” coupled with its prohibition against any restrictions on the “free exercise” of religion, has been the basis of many court challenges involving the separation of separation of church and state. Similarly, the First Amendment’s guarantee of freedom of speech and...

Budget, Federal

Budget, Federal   Reference library

Iwan Morgan

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
1,715 words

...expansion. In FY 1960 expenditure and receipts each constituted 17.8 percent GDP compared with 9.8 percent and 6.8 percent, respectively, in FY 1940 . Spending composition now prioritized defense over domestic programs. With the Cold War necessitating a huge military establishment, national security averaged 56 percent of outlays in FY 1955 – 1961 . Reinforced by the Employment Act of 1946 , which mandated federal maintenance of purchasing power, the budget also became the primary instrument of economic policy. Post- 1945 Democratic and Republican...

Civil Liberties

Civil Liberties   Reference library

Patrick M. Garry and Paul S. Boyer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
2,079 words

...s, however, calls for censorship came from political liberals advocating speech codes and advertising restrictions on “politically incorrect” speech. Perhaps the most heated and controversial of civil-liberties issues in the 1990 s were ones involving the First Amendment’s establishment-of-religion clause, such as crèches on public property, secular books for parochial school students, and prayer at public events. Yet despite public pressures, the strict church–state separation laid down by the Warren court survived. The end of the twentieth century brought...

Lemon Test

Lemon Test   Reference library

The Oxford Guide to the United States Government

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
107 words

...disputes about the meaning of the 1st Amendment's establishment clause, which concerns government involvement with religion. These three standards are known as the Lemon Test. In order for a statute not to violate the establishment clause, it must meet these three conditions: First, it must have a secular or nonreligious purpose. Second, it must neither promote nor restrict religion in its primary effects. Third, it must not bring about an excessive entanglement with religion. See also Establishment clause ; Lemon v. Kurtzman ; Religious issues...

Everson v. Board of Education of Ewing Township

Everson v. Board of Education of Ewing Township   Reference library

The Oxford Guide to the United States Government

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
666 words

...law did not violate the establishment clause of the 1st Amendment Justice Black wrote the following rules to guide decisions about the establishment clause: Neither a state nor the Federal Government can set up a church. Neither can pass laws which aid one religion, aid all religions, or prefer one religion over another. Neither can force nor influence a person to go to or remain away from church against his will or force him to profess a belief or disbelief in any religion. … In the words of Jefferson, the clause against establishment of religion by law was...

free exercise clause

free exercise clause   Reference library

The Oxford Guide to the United States Government

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
55 words

...exercise clause The 1st Amendment to the Constitution states, “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof.” Through its free exercise clause, the 1st Amendment protects the individual's right to freedom of conscience and free expression of religious beliefs. See also Religious issues under the...

Wallace v. Jaffree

Wallace v. Jaffree   Reference library

The Oxford Guide to the United States Government

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
639 words

...decided to file this suit after his three children reported that their teachers had led prayers in school. Jaffree claimed that the 1981 and 1982 Alabama statutes on prayer in public schools violated the establishment clause of the 1st Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, which prohibited the states from making laws regarding the establishment of religion. He cited Supreme Court decisions such as Engel v. Vitale ( 1962 ) and Abington School District v. Schempp ( 1963 ) to support his argument. In both cases, the Court found that state-mandated...

Connell, Raewyn

Connell, Raewyn (1944–)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology, Politics
Length:
89 words

...Connell, Raewyn ( 1944– ) Australian sociologist , instrumental in the establishment of masculinity studies and of southern theory. Also known as R.W. Connell, she is a trans woman who transitioned late in life. She coined the phrase ‘hegemonic masculinity’ to account for the dominance of men and the force of masculinity as a determining logic of everyday life. She also coined the expression ‘patriarchal dividend’ to denote the privilege that automatically accrues to all men by virtue of being men. Her best-known work in the field is Masculinities (...

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