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Establishment

Subject: Religion

In ecclesiastical usage, the recognition by the State of a particular Church as that of the State. In OT Judaism and in much of the ancient world, religious observance was part of the ...

establishment

establishment   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Environment and Conservation (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

... The successful growth and reproduction of plants and/or animals in a site that provides them with favourable...

plant recruitment

plant recruitment   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...recruitment The establishment of new seedlings and small...

inverted U

inverted U   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...U A particular shape of a line on a graph, such as on income equality with per capita income; see Kuznets (1955) Am. Econ. Rev. 45 . Grote (2008) J. Econ. Geog. 8, 2 finds an inverted U in the establishment of foreign banks in...

sand dune stabilization

sand dune stabilization   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...dune stabilization Techniques designed to prevent the erosion and deposition of sand include: the establishment of shelterbelts; mass tree revegetation using a synthetic water absorbing polymer; developing live hedges; and mechanical fencing. Shelterbelts were the most effective; mechanical fencing the least ( Raji et al. (2004) Env. Model. & Assess. 99, 1–3 ). Schwendiman (1997) Int. J. Biomet. 21 describes the three-stage approach in temperate climates, and Gadgil and Ede (1999) Land Deg. & Dev. 9, 2 outline sand dune stabilization methods...

invasion

invasion   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...The establishment of species in ecosystems they are not native to; see, for example, Russell-Smith et al. (2004) J. Biogeog. 31, 8 on the invasion of rain forest into eucalyptus woodland in Australia. Campbell et al. (2002) J. Biogeog. 29, 4 outline a methodology which might be able to be used to predict invasions by alien plant species. ‘Humans cause invasions, humans perceive invasions, and humans must decide whether, when, where and how to manage invasions’ ( Richardson et al. (2008) PHG 32, 2...

military-industrial complex

military-industrial complex   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...complex In a nation, those industries that provide materiel for the military, together with the military establishment itself. As defined by M. L. Stackhouse (1971) with reference to the USA, ‘a specific set of impersonal, interlocking institutional structures, rooted in the history of urban industrial society and in the specific conflicts in America’s emergence as a world power. It is governed by generalized value patterns that transcend ordinary political ideology; it is undergirded by a matrix of personal, contractual, and fiscal...

Bretton Woods

Bretton Woods   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Woods A shorthand for the system of international finance created in 1944 with the establishment of the International Monetary Fund , the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development ( World Bank ), and the creation of a system of fixed exchange rates. This system lasted until 1971, when it gave way to floating exchange rates. In 2007, the World Economic Forum and the Reinventing Bretton Woods Committee ( RBWC ) made specific proposals for improvements in the exchange rate system that could help to prevent large, persistent economic imbalances...

riparian

riparian   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...topic, see Hill in J. Jones and P. Mulholland, eds (2000). Riparian vegetation dynamics are driven by allogenic hydrogeomorphological factors, with autogenic (plant-induced) influences affecting both plant dynamics and the river environment from the earliest stages of plant establishment, and becoming more important as landform stability is achieved ( Francis (2006) Area 38, 4...

biological invasion

biological invasion   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...invasion The establishment of species in ecosystems to which they are not native. Invasive species cause significant ecological harm: they can alter ecosystem processes, act as vectors of disease, and reduce biodiversity. Worldwide, out of 256 vertebrate extinctions with an identifiable cause, 109 are known to be due to biological invaders ( Olsen and Santanou (2002) Am. J. Agric. Econ. 84, 5 ). Simberloff and Alexander (in P. Calow, ed. 1998) estimate that around a quarter of the value of US agricultural output is lost to non-indigenous plant...

National Park

National Park   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...sites of particular scenic or scientific interest, and protected by a national authority. ‘Geography, and our identification with it, give us a sense of place. Geography also affects our national identity, and for many National Parks is the fundamental reason for their establishment as parks’ (United States National Parks Authority). There may be conflicts between the conservation of the natural environment and public access; ‘where this happens, priority must be given to the conservation of natural beauty’ (Lord Sandford 1974). Imrie and Edwards ...

border

border   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...A boundary line established by a state, or a region, to define its spatial extent—‘central multi-scalar nodes where power, place and identity intersect’ ( Kaiser and Nikiforova (2006) Ethnic & Racial Studs 29, 5 ). The establishment and maintenance of borders are crucial to the integrity of the modern state. States use a variety of mechanisms to enforce their borders, including checking travel documents, limiting border crossings to select travellers, and in some cases, building obstacles to prohibit unauthorized crossings. While in the European Union...

conservation

conservation   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...access to key natural resources; and Sundberg (2003) Pol. Geog. 22, 7 observes that the existence of democratic regimes and formal institutions does not guarantee that environmental projects will be implemented through demographic processes. C. Hambler ( 2004 ) favours establishment of an environmental fund into which polluters pay and from which societies can draw, such that those whose development opportunities are curtailed for global conservation objectives can access compensatory development funds. See Vogiatzakis et al. (2006) PPG 30 on using ...

Jefferson, Thomas

Jefferson, Thomas (1743–1826)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...the Louisiana territory from France in 1803 . Although Jefferson did not live to see it, the formation of the U.S. Geological Survey in 1879 was a direct result of the success of the Lewis and Clark expedition. In 1870 another dream of Jefferson's was realized with the establishment of the U.S. Weather Bureau to institutionalize the weather-data collecting that the Smithsonian Institution had carried on informally for several decades. Bibliography Bedini, S. A. Thomas Jefferson: Statesman of Science . New York: Macmillan, 1990. Gillispie, C. C. , ed. ...

alcohol, geographies of

alcohol, geographies of   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...outside mealtimes; and a southern wet area, where wine is the main beverage, usually drunk at meals. Subsequently, European alcohol choices have started to converge ( Allamani et al. (2000) Substance Abuse 21, 4 ). P. Chatterton and R. Hollands ( 2003 ) see alcohol-related establishments as the driving force in recent city-centre regeneration; Roberts (2006) Cities 23 reports that cities at night now attract vast numbers of people. See also D. Hobbs et al. ( 2003 ). However, Roberts et al. (2006) Urb. Studs 43, 7 conclude that British free market...

Marine Reserve

Marine Reserve   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...Reserve As ocean resources are declining in many places around the globe, diverse audiences are discussing whether the establishment of marine reserves can protect some of these resources and complement other efforts to protect marine ecosystems. Marine reserves are ocean areas that are fully protected from activities that remove animals and plants or alter habitats, except as needed for scientific monitoring. Examples of prohibited activities are fishing, aquaculture, dredging, and mining; activities such as swimming, boating, and scuba diving are usually...

Agassiz, Louis

Agassiz, Louis (1807—1873)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...and became well known as a teacher and popular lecturer as well as a researcher. Agassiz founded both the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard ( 1859 ) and the Anderson School of Natural History on Penikese Island, Massachusetts ( 1873 ); he was also influential in the establishment of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences in 1863 . On research expeditions throughout central Europe and Great Britain, the eastern and central United States, and South America, he amassed details of the glacial, geological, and biological history of the Earth. Although he...

Inuit

Inuit   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...in 1988 . In 1996 , the ICC received the Environmental Award from the Nordic Council of Ministers. It is not widely known that IRCS had a strong influence on the shape of the Murmansk speech given by Mikhail Gorbachev in 1987 and in the subsequent establishment of AEPS. In summary, since its establishment more than three decades ago, the ICC has been very successful at ensuring that Inuit interests have gained the profile, recognition, and response required. The ICC has grown into a major international nongovernment organization, with Consultative Status...

Antarctic Ice Sheet

Antarctic Ice Sheet   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
1,411 words
Illustration(s):
3

...with field research, have established an adequate understanding of the principal physical characteristics and the important climate role of the ice sheet. Origins. Ice appears to have been present on the high-latitude Antarctic continent since 50 million years ago. The establishment of circum-Antarctic ocean circulation led to progressive refrigeration of the continent and build-up of high-altitude ice fields (for example within the interior Gamburtsev Mountains). Large, continental-scale ice sheets developed about 34 million years ago. Glacial geological...

Greenland Ice Sheet

Greenland Ice Sheet   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,024 words
Illustration(s):
6

...R. B. The Two-Mile Time Machine: Ice Cores, Abrupt Climate Change, and Our Future . Princeton, N. J.: Princeton University Press, 2000. Benson, C. S. “ Stratigraphic Studies in the Snow and Firn of the Greenland Ice Sheet .” U.S. Army Snow, Ice and Permafrost Research Establishment, Research Report 70, 1962. Funder, S. “Quaternary Geology of the Ice-Free Areas and Adjacent Shelves of Greenland.” In Quaternary Geology of Canada and Greenland , edited by R. J. Fulton , pp. 743–792. Ottawa: Geological Society of Canada, 1989. Johnsen, S. J. , W....

Communication Strategies of Environmental NGOs and Advocacy Groups

Communication Strategies of Environmental NGOs and Advocacy Groups   Reference library

Steven Yearley

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...statements in favor of the objectivity of the scientific establishment’s views mean that it is harder to distance themselves from scientists’ conclusions on other occasions without appearing arbitrary or tendentious. It is tricky for ENGOs to criticize scientists’ pronouncements or even policy recommendations without legitimating a kind of general skepticism about the things scientists say. On the other hand, a reluctance to criticize mainstream science threatens to make NGOs too accepting of establishment positions and to leave them with only a derivative...

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