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Establishment

Subject: Religion

In ecclesiastical usage, the recognition by the State of a particular Church as that of the State. In OT Judaism and in much of the ancient world, religious observance was part of the ...

establishment

establishment   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Environment and Conservation (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

... The successful growth and reproduction of plants and/or animals in a site that provides them with favourable...

Building Research Establishment

Building Research Establishment   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Construction, Surveying and Civil Engineering

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Research Establishment ( BRE ) An independent consultancy that specializes in undertaking work in the built environment. www.bre.co.uk Web-link details the official...

Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method

Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method   Quick reference

A Supplementary Dictionary of Renewable Energy and Sustainability

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method ( BREEAM ) A standard that sets best practice in sustainable building design, construction, and operation, and measures a building’s environmental performance. The measures of performance include energy and water use, the internal environment (health and well-being), pollution, transport, materials, waste, ecology, and management processes. The accreditation enables developers, builders, designers, and building managers to demonstrate the environmental credentials of their...

Building Research Establishment environmental assessment methodology

Building Research Establishment environmental assessment methodology   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Energy Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...Building Research Establishment environmental assessment methodology ( BREEAM ) An environmental assessment method for buildings aimed at promoting sustainable development . Factors assessed include the energy and water use, the working and living environment, the materials used, and the environmental impact of the building. The method considers building stock properties rather than behavioural factors....

Chittenden, Russell Henry

Chittenden, Russell Henry   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Scientists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology
Length:
172 words

...important work in toxicology and on the protein requirements of man, showing that the so-called Voit standard, which recommended 118 grams of protein per day, was a vast overestimate, and that good health could be maintained on 50 grams a day. He played a major part in the establishment of physiological chemistry (biochemistry) as a science in its own...

Lucas, Keith

Lucas, Keith   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Scientists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology
Length:
130 words

...Keith (1879–1916) British neurophysiologist Lucas , the son of an engineer, was born at Greenwich and graduated from Cambridge University, where he was elected a fellow in 1904 . In 1914 he joined the research department of the Royal Aircraft Establishment, Farnborough, and while carrying out his duties died in a midair collision. In 1905 and 1909 Lucas published two papers that clearly stated the all-or-none law of nervous stimulation: a stimulus can evoke a maximum possible response or nothing. If stimuli of varying strength appear to elicit...

Ne'eman, Yuval

Ne'eman, Yuval   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Scientists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology
Length:
236 words

.... The theory was consolidated in a book by the two men with the title The Eightfold Way ( 1964 ) and later formed the basis of a further significant theoretical development – the ‘quark' hypothesis. From 1961 to 1963 Ne'eman was scientific director of the Saraq Research Establishment of the Israeli Atomic Energy Commission, and from 1963 was head of the physics department and an associate professor at Tel Aviv University. In 1964 he became a full professor and was also appointed vice-rector of the...

Cockcroft, Sir John Douglas

Cockcroft, Sir John Douglas   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Scientists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology
Length:
243 words

...America as a member of the Tizard mission to negotiate exchanges of military, scientific, and technological information. In 1944 he became director of the Anglo-Canadian Atomic Energy Commission. He returned to Britain in 1946 to direct the new Atomic Energy Research Establishment at Harwell and remained there until 1959 , when he was appointed master of Churchill College, Cambridge, a new college devoted especially to science and technology. Cockcroft received a knighthood in 1948...

Cuvier, Baron Georges Léopold Chrétien Frédéric Dagobert

Cuvier, Baron Georges Léopold Chrétien Frédéric Dagobert   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Scientists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology
Length:
233 words

...Cuvier was born in Montbéliard (now in France) and as a child was greatly influenced by Georges Buffon's books. In 1795 he became assistant to the professor of comparative anatomy at the Museum of Natural History in Paris – then the world's largest scientific research establishment. During his lifetime he greatly enlarged the comparative anatomy section from a few hundred skeletons to 13,000 specimens. Cuvier extended Linnaeus's classification, creating another level, the phylum, into which he grouped related classes. He recognized four phyla in the...

Salam, Abdus

Salam, Abdus   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Scientists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology
Length:
266 words

...a post as head of the mathematics department of Punjab University. From 1954 until 1956 he lectured at Cambridge and from 1957 to 1993 he was a professor of theoretical physics at the Imperial College of Science and Technology, London. He was largely responsible for the establishment in 1964 of the International Center for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, as an institute to assist physicists from developing countries. He was director of the center from its inception until 1994 , dividing his time between there and Imperial College. Salam's work was...

Drake, Frank Donald

Drake, Frank Donald   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Scientists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology
Length:
342 words

... megahertz at which radio emission from hydrogen occurs. This would have considerable significance for any civilization capable of building radio transmitters. No signals were received although at one time excitement was generated when signals from a secret military radar establishment were received while the antenna was pointed at Epsilon Eridani. In July 1960 the project was terminated to allow the telescope to fulfill some of its other obligations. Drake revived the project in 1975 , in collaboration with Carl Sagan , when they began using the Arecibo...

Watt, James

Watt, James   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Scientists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology
Length:
331 words

...in 1781 was used in flour mills, cotton mills, and paper mills. An automatic speed control mechanism, the centrifugal governor invented in 1788 , was another improvement. Watt made a great deal of money from the sale of his engines and became accepted into the scientific establishment. He retired from the business of steam-engine manufacture in 1800 and spent his time traveling, working as a consultant, and working on minor inventions in his workshop at home. Watt was the first to use the term horsepower as a unit of power and the watt , a unit of power,...

Cohn, Ferdinand Julius

Cohn, Ferdinand Julius   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Scientists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology
Length:
370 words

...at Breslau by the university's anti-Semitic regulations. He therefore moved to Berlin, where he received his doctorate in botany in 1847 . Cohn returned to Breslau, becoming professor of botany there in 1872 . He had long argued that the state should be responsible for the establishment of botanical research institutes, and as a result of his campaign the world's first institute for plant physiology was set up in Breslau in 1866 . Cohn was director of this institute until his death and in 1870 he founded the journal Beiträge zur Biologie der Pflanzen ,...

Du Bois-Reymond, Emil Heinrich

Du Bois-Reymond, Emil Heinrich   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Scientists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology
Length:
252 words

...chemical laws. Du Bois-Reymond was elected a member of the Berlin Academy of Sciences in 1851 and succeeded Müller as professor of physiology at Berlin in 1858 . He was also instrumental in founding the Berlin Physiological Institute, opened in 1877 , then the finest establishment of its...

Golgi, Camillo

Golgi, Camillo   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Scientists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology
Length:
294 words

...are separated by gaps called synapses. Golgi also found a specialized type of nerve cell, later called the Golgi cell , which, by means of fingerlike projections (dendrites), serves to connect many other nerve cells. This discovery led to the formulation (by Waldeyer ) and establishment (by Santiago Ramón y Cajal ) of the neuron theory – a theory that Golgi was nevertheless strongly opposed to. Golgi was also the first to draw attention to the Golgi bodies : flattened cavities parallel to the cell's nuclear membrane whose function appears to be packaging...

Levi-Montalcini, Rita

Levi-Montalcini, Rita   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Scientists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology
Length:
365 words

...Rita (1909–2012) Italian cell biologist Levi-Montalcini was educated at the university in her native city of Turin, graduating from medical school just before the outbreak of World War II. Being of Italian-Jewish descent, she found that posts in Italy's academic establishments were closed to her as a result of growing antisemitism. Undaunted, she converted her bedroom into a makeshift laboratory and proceeded with her studies of the development of chick embryos. In this she was joined by her former professor (but no relation), Giuseppe Levi , a...

Maury, Matthew Fontaine

Maury, Matthew Fontaine   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Scientists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology
Length:
372 words

...in Washington. This post carried with it the directorship of the US Naval Observatory and Hydrographic Office. Maury largely ignored astronomical work, emphasizing instead the study of oceanography and meteorology, and consequently aroused the opposition of the scientific establishment centered upon Joseph Henry and Alexander Bache . He resigned his position with the outbreak of the American Civil War ( 1861 ) to become a commander in the Confederate Navy. After the war he took on, in 1865 , the post of Imperial Commissioner for Immigration to the doomed...

Hewish, Antony

Hewish, Antony   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Scientists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology
Length:
382 words

...Antony (1924–) British radio astronomer Hewish was born at Fowey in Cornwall, and studied at Cambridge University. He obtained his BA in 1948 and his PhD in 1952 after wartime work with the Royal Aircraft Establishment, Farnborough. He lectured in physics at Cambridge until in 1969 he was made reader and in 1971 professor of radio astronomy, becoming professor emeritus in 1989 . In 1974 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for physics jointly with Martin Ryle . One of Hewish's research projects was the study of radio scintillation using the...

Kistiakowsky, George Bogdan

Kistiakowsky, George Bogdan   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Scientists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology
Length:
266 words

...take place in less than a millionth of a second and with great precision and accuracy. Right to the very end there was considerable doubt as to whether Kistiakowsky could solve the technical problems involved. After the war Kistiakowsky, very much a figure of the scientific establishment, spent much time advising numerous governmental bodies. From 1959 until 1961 he served as special assistant for science and technology to President Eisenhower , later writing an account of this period in A Scientist at the White House ( 1976 ). Toward the end of his...

London, Heinz

London, Heinz   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Scientists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology
Length:
312 words

...in 1936 , remaining there until his brief internment as an enemy alien in 1940 . On his release he worked on the separation of uranium isotopes for the development of the atomic bomb. With the coming of peace, in 1946 London joined the staff of the Atomic Energy Research Establishment at Harwell where he remained until his death. In Oxford London continued the work of his thesis in his collaboration with his brother on a number of pressing problems in superconductivity. In particular they explained the discoveries of W. Meissner that at the moment a metal...

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