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Overview

Establishment

Subject: Religion

In ecclesiastical usage, the recognition by the State of a particular Church as that of the State. In OT Judaism and in much of the ancient world, religious observance was part of the ...

secondary identification

secondary identification n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...identification n . In psychoanalysis , identification ( 2 ) occurring after the establishment of an object-relationship . See primary identification...

counselling

counselling n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...advice-giving, but the dominant ethos is one of providing facilitation without directive guidance. Counselling psychologists work with individuals, couples, and families in a variety of settings, including counselling agencies, general practitioners’ surgeries, educational establishments, business organizations, and private practice. US counseling . See assertiveness training , client-centred therapy , co-counselling , disaster counselling , educational psychology , genetic counselling , Gestalt therapy , marriage counselling , offender...

political correctness

political correctness n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...to him as African American. See also ableism , fattism , herstory , heterosexism . politically correct adj . PC abbrev . [Coined by the US journalist Elinor Langer (born 1939 ) in the New York Times in 1984 , alluding to social conventions in the liberal establishment...

genital stage

genital stage n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...where he suggested that its roots lie in childhood: ‘The only difference lies in the fact that in childhood the combination of the component instincts and their subordination under the primacy of the genitals have been effected only very incompletely or not at all. Thus the establishment of that primacy in the service of reproduction is the last phase through which the organization of sexuality passes’ ( Standard Edition , VII, pp. 130–243, at p. 199). Also called the genital phase . See also genital character , genital love , pregenital...

psychophysics

psychophysics n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...them. It is concerned partly with the determination of absolute thresholds and difference thresholds , using variations of three classical methods called the method of constant stimuli , the method of limits , and the method of average error , and partly with the establishment of psychophysical functions and psychophysical scales . Among its greatest achievements are Weber’s law , Fechner's law , and the power law , and one of its most important modern forms is signal detection theory. See also absolute error , ABX paradigm , catch...

psychology

psychology n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...the mind. Many textbooks define psychology simply as the study of behaviour, or the science of behaviour, but that too is to exclude much of psychology: the study of cognition , for example, is concerned with behaviour only indirectly, as evidence of mental processes. The establishment of psychology as an independent discipline, separate from the disciplines of philosophy and biology from which it emerged, is attributable to the German psychologist Wilhelm (Max) Wundt ( 1832–1920 ), who stated in the opening sentence of his book Principles of...

History of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology in Australia

History of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology in Australia   Reference library

Jeffrey Bond and Tony Morris

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
11,488 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the APS (see the section “ Sport Psychology Professional Bodies”). In many ways, this group of events created a significant platform for the ongoing development of Australian sport psychology. Establishment of the Australian Institute of Sport Australian sport psychology was effectively launched as a bona fide profession in conjunction with the establishment of the Australian Institute of Sport (AIS) in 1981 ( Daly, 1991 ). The commencement of the “legitimacy” of the profession in the early 1980s was correlated with the co-location of the AIS Sport...

History of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology in Europe

History of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology in Europe   Reference library

Stiliani “Ani” Chroni and Frank Abrahamsen

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...via his early research on exercise psychology (see, e.g., Zervas et al., 1993 ; Zervas, Danis, & Klissouras, 1991 ; Zervas, 1990 ), the students he trained (among the many are Panteleimon Ekkekakis, Vassilios Kakkos, Maria Psychountaki, and Nektarios Stavrou), and the establishment of the Hellenic sport psychology society. It appears that sport psychology has strong traditions as well as strong research lines and programs, dating back to the early contributions of people like Cattell, Coubertin, Scripture, and Wundt. Notably, Reel ( 2015 ) argued that...

Aggression and Anger in Sport and Performance

Aggression and Anger in Sport and Performance   Reference library

Jerzy Kosiewicz

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...in Sport and Performance Postulation of Science on Aggression in Sport An extensive body of literature exists regarding aggression in sport, primarily in English but also some in Polish. This literature provides a sufficient groundwork for initial considerations in the establishment of a new science—the science on aggression in sport— which may constitute one of many components of the overall study of aggression. Aggressive behaviors and attitudes are investigated first of all from the viewpoint of psychology, sociology, and philosophy. These three disciplines...

Humanistic Theory in Sport, Performance, and Sports Coaching Psychology

Humanistic Theory in Sport, Performance, and Sports Coaching Psychology   Reference library

Rebecca K. Dickinson, Tristan J. Coulter, and Clifford J. Mallett

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...was no consistent focus on systematically studying sport psychology. During the 1920s and 1930s, sport psychology was beginning to be developed as a specialty area through the appearance of more systematic lines of research, publications, and presentations, as well as the establishment of laboratories for experimental research (e.g., the study of motor learning and control) ( Gould & Voelker, 2014 ). The 1940s through the 1960s marked the beginning of more significant inclusion of sport psychology principles in tertiary education, moving it further toward...

Research Methods in Sport and Exercise Psychology

Research Methods in Sport and Exercise Psychology   Reference library

Sicong Liu and Gershon Tenenbaum

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...& Gould, 2011 ). Triplett ( 1898 ) observed a social phenomenon that cyclists tended to ride faster when riding with others than when riding alone. During the period 1920–1940 , experimental laboratory methods became popular in sport and exercise psychology with the establishment of dedicated laboratories around the world ( Kornspan, 2012 ). For instance, Coleman Griffith helped create the first sport and exercise psychology laboratory in North America at the University of Illinois in 1925 ( Kroll & Lewis, 1970 ). In addition to experimental...

Emotional Self-Regulation in Sport and Performance

Emotional Self-Regulation in Sport and Performance   Reference library

Claudio Robazza and Montse C. Ruiz

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
13,178 words
Illustration(s):
3

...highlighting the crucial role of the information-bearing structures involved in movement production. They added a fourth dimension, termed skill establishment , to the three-dimensional model of the anxiety–performance relationship. The three-dimensional model, advanced by Cheng, Hardy, and Markland ( 2009 ) , includes the cognitive anxiety, physiological anxiety, and perceived control dimensions. Skill establishment comprises the level and consistency of movement automaticity combined with the individual’s confidence in this specific process against...

Supervision in Performance Settings (Dance, Music, Acting)

Supervision in Performance Settings (Dance, Music, Acting)   Reference library

Gene M. Moyle

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...psychological concepts and skills to the population they would be working with ( Watson et al., 2014 ). Reflection upon the most appropriate supervision model to guide supervisory relationship and experience is critical ( Maaranen-Hincks et al., 2017 ), along with the establishment of clear roles and responsibilities of the supervisee’s role within the performing arts discipline and ongoing recognition and effective management of the potential ethical issues that might arise in such varied and distinctive settings. Further Reading Andersen, M. B. (1994)...

Alcohol Abuse and Drug Use in Sport and Performance

Alcohol Abuse and Drug Use in Sport and Performance   Reference library

Matthew P. Martens

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...Andre, 1994 ; Tricker, Cook, & McGuire, 1989 ). At the adolescent and collegiate levels, successful athletes may find that they are regularly invited to social gatherings where alcohol or other drugs are provided. Athletes old enough to go to bars, clubs, and other public establishments may find that other patrons are eager to socialize with them, including purchasing their drinks. Additionally, a club or bar owner may provide free drinks to athletes of a certain stature to encourage their patronage. Basic behavioral economics principles indicate that the...

History of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology in North America

History of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology in North America   Reference library

Vincent J. Granito

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...approaches, which have utilized a chronological methodology to document the field. Instead, it focuses on the key individuals, including their educational, research, and practice accomplishments, landmark publications, including the advancement of scholarly journals, and the establishment of professional organizations. The first section looks at professionals who did not necessarily organize the field but influenced those who would come later. Influential Individuals and Their Work: The Classics The earliest contributions to the field were made by individuals with...

History of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology in Southern Africa

History of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology in Southern Africa   Reference library

Clinton Gahwiler, Lee Hill, and Valérie Grand’Maison

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
11,560 words
Illustration(s):
1

...to pioneering work in the field by Leapetswe Malete and Tshepang Tshube, who obtained their PhDs in sport psychology at Michigan State University. Leapetswe Malete is at Michigan State University and Tshepang Tshube at the University of Botswana. They have contributed to the establishment of both undergraduate and graduate programs in sport psychology ( Tshube & Hanrahan, 2016 ). As of 2018 , universities in Mauritius and Zimbabwe offer elective coursework modules at the undergraduate and postgraduate levels for psychology students, but not yet as professional...

Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, and Cognition

Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, and Cognition   Reference library

Jennifer L. Etnier

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...in BDNF and VEGF in the periphery, evidence supporting a link between these increases and structural, functional, or behavioral measures relevant to cognition is inadequate. Current limitations in our ability to measure these proteins centrally in humans may make the establishment of clear causal links impractical at this time. That being said, the quest for mechanisms is critically important in the effort to understand how to prescribe exercise to specifically benefit cognitive performance. PA and Cognitive Performance by Children In contrast to the relatively...

Psychosocial Measurement Issues in Sport and Exercise Settings

Psychosocial Measurement Issues in Sport and Exercise Settings   Reference library

Gershon Tenenbaum and Edson Filho

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
11,421 words
Illustration(s):
5

...Furthermore, a given unit of measurement (e.g., 1°C) must denote the same (equal) value to allow for reliable comparisons across quantities within a continuum. Finally, linearity allows for inferences of direction (e.g., increase or decrease in temperature) as well as the establishment of a relationship pattern (i.e., normalization) among the several quantities represented in each population. Once a measure satisfies these three properties (e.g., origin, equal units of measurement, and linearity), and is reliable and valid, it allows objectivity and generalizability...

Killian, James Rhyne, Jr.

Killian, James Rhyne, Jr. (1904–1988)   Reference library

Zuoyue Wang

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...of the Carnegie Commission on Educational Television and then of the Corporation for Public Broadcasting, devoted much of his energy to the establishment of public broadcasting in the United States. In 1973 , after President Richard Nixon abolished the PSAC over policy disagreements, Killian chaired a “blue ribbon” committee of the National Academy of Sciences, whose report was in part responsible for the establishment of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy in 1976 . [ See also Compton, Karl Taylor ; Higher Education and Science ; ...

Agricultural Education and Extension

Agricultural Education and Extension   Reference library

Roy V. Scott

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...colleges that existed by the end of the twentieth century were established under the provisions of the Morrill Land Grant Act of 1862 , which required that they offer residential instruction in agriculture. The Hatch Act of 1887 appropriated federal funds for the establishment in each state of one or more experiment stations to undertake systematic study of agricultural problems and to formulate scientific knowledge that could be presented in college classrooms. The stations were usually located at the land-grant colleges and commonly shared faculty...

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