View:

Overview

Establishment

Subject: Religion

In ecclesiastical usage, the recognition by the State of a particular Church as that of the State. In OT Judaism and in much of the ancient world, religious observance was part of the ...

migration of workers

migration of workers   Reference library

Encyclopaedic Dictionary of International Law (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, International Law
Length:
226 words

... I Oppenheim's International Law, 897 and 898 . But see Establishment of Foreign Workers Case (1969) 38 I.L.R. 261 in which a distinction was drawn between the right of residence and the right of establishment. The free movement of workers and the right of establishment for all citizens of the European Union within other Member States of the Union are fundamental elements of the single market established within the Union. See art. 39 (free movement of workers) and art. 43 (freedom of establishment) of the Consolidated Text of the Treaty Establishing the...

EUTELSAT

EUTELSAT   Reference library

Encyclopaedic Dictionary of International Law (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, International Law
Length:
139 words

...a provisional telecommunications satellite organization ‘Interim EUTELSAT’ (text in 11 Annals of Air and Space Law 416 (1986) ) provided for the establishment in 1986 between European telecommunications administrations of a provisional organization, pending the working out of the final organization, for operating commercial satellite telecommunications systems. The Interim EUTELSAT was to ensure the establishment, operation, and maintenance of the space segments of satellite telecommunications systems and to conclude the necessary agreements to that end,...

Intersputnik

Intersputnik   Reference library

Encyclopaedic Dictionary of International Law (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, International Law
Length:
134 words

...The name given to the international system of communications via satellites established in the Soviet bloc by the Agreement on the Establishment of the ‘Intersputnik’ International System and Organization of Space Communications of 15 November 1971 ( 862 U.N.T.S. 3 ) which entered into force 12 July 1972 . The basic function of Intersputnik was to ‘ensure cooperation and coordination of efforts in the design, establishment, operation and development of the communications system’ (art. 1(2). It coordinates its activities with the International...

prize courts

prize courts   Reference library

Encyclopaedic Dictionary of International Law (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, International Law
Length:
165 words

...Every State is, however, bound by International Law to enact only such statutes and regulations for its Prize Courts as are in conformity with International Law’: II Oppenheim 482–485 . The Hague Convention relative to the Establishment of an International Prize Court of 18 October 1907 ( 205 C.T.S. 381 ) provided for the establishment of an International Prize Court, but the Convention failed of ratification. See Scott , Prize Cases Decided in the United States Supreme Court 1789 – 1918 ( 1923...

Axis powers

Axis powers   Reference library

Encyclopaedic Dictionary of International Law (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, International Law
Length:
142 words

...Axis powers, Germany, Italy, and Japan entered into a military alliance by virtue of the Tripartite Pact on 27 September 1940 . The Pact provided for the recognition by Japan of German and Italian leadership ‘in the establishment of a new order in Europe’ (art. 1) and the recognition by Germany of Japanese leadership ‘in the establishment of a new order in Greater East Asia’ (art. 2). The three Powers agreed to cooperate and assist one another in case of attack: art. 3. Other States signatory to the Pact included Hungary, Romania, Slovakia, the Kingdom of...

Bassiouni, Cherif

Bassiouni, Cherif (1937– )   Reference library

Encyclopaedic Dictionary of International Law (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, International Law
Length:
154 words

.... Member and Chairman of the U.N. Commission to Investigate International Humanitarian Law Violations in the former Yugoslavia ( 1992 ). Vice-Chairman of the U.N. General Assembly's Committee for the Establishment of an International Criminal Court ( 1995–1998 ). He was Chairman of the Drafting Committee of the 1998 Diplomatic Conference on the Establishment of an International Criminal Court. He was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize in 1999 and was awarded the Hague Prize for International Law in 2007 . His works include International Extradition:...

dissolution of State

dissolution of State   Reference library

Encyclopaedic Dictionary of International Law (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, International Law
Length:
84 words

...of State The establishment of one or more new States on territory formerly belonging to the predecessor State, usually in the form of a union or federation of States and bringing about the complete disappearance of the predecessor State, e.g., the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1919 ; termination of the United Arab Republic between Syria and Egypt in 1960 ; dissolution of the U.S.S.R. in 1991 and of Yugoslavia in 1991–1992 . See also merger of States ; redistribution of territory ; secession of territory...

UNMOT

UNMOT   Reference library

Encyclopaedic Dictionary of International Law (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, International Law
Length:
98 words

...to under the Agreement on a Temporary Ceasefire and the Cessation of Other Hostile Acts on the Tajik–Afghan Border of 17 September 1974 . UNMOT's mandate was expanded by Res. 1138 ( 1997 ) of 14 November 1997 to assist in the execution of the General Agreement on the Establishment of Peace and National Accord in Tajikistan 27 June 1997...

confrontation

confrontation   Reference library

Encyclopaedic Dictionary of International Law (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, International Law
Length:
88 words

...While not a term of art in international law, ‘[a] concept of a new kind made its appearance in the period 1963–1966 in the shape of Indonesia's “confrontation” of Malaysia, after the establishment of that new state in September, 1963 . “Confrontation” involved action and policies to undermine the integrity and position of Malaysia. It was short-lived, being terminated by the signature on August 11, 1966 of an agreement of peace and co-operation (drawn up at Bangkok, signed at Jakarta)’: Shearer , Starke's International Law (11th ed.),...

Sic et simpliciter

Sic et simpliciter adv.   Quick reference

Guide to Latin in International Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Law, International Law
Length:
71 words

... sēk āt sēmplē´kētār . sik et simpli´sitɜr . adv. “Thus and simply.” Without further complication or elaboration. E.g. , “[T]he principle of fiscal territoriality, which the court has recognised in respect of the rules on free movement of persons and freedom of establishment, cannot be transposed sic et simpliciter to freedom of services.” Opinion of Advocate General Tesauro, Safir v. Skattemyndigheten I Dalarnas Län , [ 1998 ] 3 C.M.L.R. 739, 754, ¶...

London Proces-Verbal on the Rules of Submarine Warfare

London Proces-Verbal on the Rules of Submarine Warfare   Reference library

Encyclopaedic Dictionary of International Law (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, International Law
Length:
76 words

...protect merchant ships from unrestricted submarine attack. Germany, one of the 39 parties, justified its unrestricted submarine attacks during World War II on the basis that they were legitimate reprisals and that the British merchant fleet was integrated into its military establishment...

PrepCom

PrepCom   Reference library

Encyclopaedic Dictionary of International Law (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, International Law
Length:
88 words

...A preparatory commission, or committee, is a body established in multilateral treaty to undertake work in anticipation or furtherance of the implementation of the treaty. Thus, Res. F of the Final Act of the U.N. Diplomatic Conference on the Establishment of an International Criminal Court of 17 July 1998 ( U.N. Doc. A/CONF.183.10 ) established a preparatory commission of all the signatories to undertake a number of specific tasks, including the elaboration of rules of procedure for the Court and definitional Elements of Crime . Cf. Conference of...

Pellat Claim

Pellat Claim   Reference library

Encyclopaedic Dictionary of International Law (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, International Law
Length:
197 words

...in Mexico, suffered damage between 1913 and 1916 as a result of forced loans exacted by the State of Sonora (a Member State of the federal United States of Mexico) for the benefit of revolutionary forces supported by the State of Sonora, the sacking of his commercial establishment and requisitions by revolutionary forces. By the France–Mexico Claims Convention 25 September 1924 ( 79 L.N.T.S. 418 ), Mexico undertook, ex gratia , to indemnify French nationals against acts committed by, inter alia , revolutionary forces. Held by the France–Mexico...

EUROCONTROL

EUROCONTROL   Reference library

Encyclopaedic Dictionary of International Law (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, International Law
Length:
117 words

...The International Convention relating to Cooperation for the Safety of Air Navigation of 13 December 1960 ( 523 U.N.T.S. 117 ) provided for the establishment of a European system organized jointly by the Member States for the control of general air traffic in the upper airspace, of which the European Organization for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL) is the institutional arm. Now with 44 participating States, EUROCONTROL has set its objectives as further improving air traffic management (ATM) safety while accommodating air traffic growth,...

UNIFIL

UNIFIL   Reference library

Encyclopaedic Dictionary of International Law (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, International Law
Length:
106 words

...Established by Security Council Res. 425 ( 1978 ) of 19 March 1978 , the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon was mandated to verify Israel's withdrawal from Lebanon and to aid in the re-establishment of Lebanon's governmental authority. Still extent, and with its mandate renewed annually, UNIFIL has been given additional functions to deal with emergent difficulties, as in Res. 516 ( 1982 ) of 1 August 1982 to utilize observers in and around Beirut, in Res. 523 ( 1982 ) of 18 October 1982 to perform administrative and humanitarian task in the...

Pari passu

Pari passu n.   Quick reference

Guide to Latin in International Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Law, International Law
Length:
92 words

...(1) Simultaneously. (2) Proceeding together in synchronization; at an equal pace. E.g. , “ Pari passu with the breaking down of isolation, [which] makes a common public opinion possible, the building up of standards of conduct is being accomplished by the formulation and establishment of rules that are being gradually taken out of the domain of discussion into that of general acceptance.” Elihu Root, Address of the President of the Society , 2 A m. S oc ’ y I nt ’ l L. P roc. 14, 18 ( 1908...

Animus manendi

Animus manendi n.   Quick reference

Guide to Latin in International Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Law, International Law
Length:
110 words

...manendi a´nēmūs manān´dē . â´nimus munen´dī. n. “Intention to remain.” The intention to stay somewhere indefinitely. Animus manendi is generally considered a prerequisite in private international law for the establishment of domicile and is sufficient to establish domicile at the moment when the person’s residency in a state coincides with animus manendi . E.g. , “In the first place, I would point out that, according to the case-law of the court, a person resides in the place in which he has established, with animus manendi , the ‘permanent’ or...

Hotline Agreements

Hotline Agreements   Reference library

Encyclopaedic Dictionary of International Law (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, International Law
Length:
88 words

...Agreements The popular name of the Memorandum of Understanding between the United States and the U.S.S.R. regarding the Establishment of a Direct Communications Link signed on 20 June 1963 ( 472 U.N.T.S. 164 ) ‘for use in time of emergency’, modified by a further agreement of 30 September 1971 ( 806 U.N.T.S. 420 ) and expanded by yet further agreements of 17 July 1984 ( 2193 U.N.T.S. 51 ) and 24 June 1988 . Similar agreements were concluded between the U.S.S.R. and France in 1976 and the U.S.S.R. and the United Kingdom in 1977...

humanitarian occupation

humanitarian occupation   Reference library

Encyclopaedic Dictionary of International Law (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, International Law
Length:
124 words

...‘the assumption of governing authority over a state or portion thereof by an international actor for the express purpose of creating liberal, democratic order’: Fox, Humanitarian Occupation ( 2008 ), 4. Its salient elements are the cessation of human rights abuses and the establishment of a new and democratic government (hence ‘humanitarian’), and the administration of the territory by an (interim) governing authority akin to that of belligerent occupation (hence ‘occupation’): ibid ., 3–4. Examples cited (Bosnia, East Timor, Eastern Slovenia, Iraq, and...

drugs

drugs   Reference library

Encyclopaedic Dictionary of International Law (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, International Law
Length:
154 words

...Upon the establishment of the United Nations, a Commission on Narcotic Drugs was set up by ECOSOC Res. 9 (I) of 16 February 1946 . Under the auspices of this body, the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 30 March 1961 ( 520 U.N.T.S. 204 ) was elaborated, replacing earlier international agreements in the matter and establishing the International Narcotics Control Board ( INCB ). This Convention was amended by the Protocol of 25 March 1972 : 976 U.N.T.S. 3 . The Convention on Psychotropic Substances of 21 February 1971 ( 1019 U.N.T.S. 175 ) and...

View: