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Overview

Establishment

Subject: Religion

In ecclesiastical usage, the recognition by the State of a particular Church as that of the State. In OT Judaism and in much of the ancient world, religious observance was part of the ...

Hampden

Hampden (Canada, New Zealand, USA)   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Place Names (5 ed.)

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...Hampden , Canada, New Zealand, USA USA (Massachusetts and Maine): named after John Hampden ( see hamden ) who supported the establishment of Puritan communities in North...

Lambert’s Bay

Lambert’s Bay (Western Cape/South Africa)   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Place Names (5 ed.)

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...Lambert’s Bay , Western Cape/South Africa Founded in 1913 and named after Rear Admiral Sir Robert Lambert , commander of the British naval establishment at the Cape ( 1820–1...

Fujian

Fujian (China)   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Place Names (5 ed.)

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...Fujian , China A province which, when it was established in 760–2 , had five prefectures. The names of two of them, Fuzhou and Jianzhou, were combined to give the present name. Linguistically, the name can mean ‘Happy Establishment’ from fú ‘happiness’ and jiàn ‘to build’ or ‘to...

Hofmeyr

Hofmeyr (Eastern Cape/South Africa)   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Place Names (5 ed.)

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...Hofmeyr , Eastern Cape/South Africa ( Maraisburg ) Settled in 1873 and first named after Daniel Marais who was prominent in its establishment. To distinguish it from another town of the same name in the Transvaal, it was renamed in 1911 after Jan Hendrik Hofmeyr ( 1845–1909 ), influential and much respected leader of the (Dutch) Afrikaner Bond in the Cape...

Emmitsburg

Emmitsburg (Maryland/USA)   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Place Names (5 ed.)

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...Emmitsburg , Maryland/USA Although it is thought to have been settled in 1757 , the official year of its establishment is 1785 . Samuel Emmit, a local landowner, was responsible, and in his honour the town was given the name ‘Emmit’s Town’. It has been claimed that former names were Poplar Fields and Silver Fancy, but these have been...

Warwick

Warwick (Australia, Canada, UK, USA)   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Place Names (5 ed.)

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...Island): founded as Shawomet in 1642 and subsequently renamed after Robert Rich ( 1587–1658 ), 2nd Earl of Warwick, Lord High Admiral, supporter of Cromwell against King Charles I , and a Puritan who headed a colonial government commission in 1643 which led to the establishment of Rhode...

Altanbulag

Altanbulag (Mongolia)   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Place Names (5 ed.)

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...Altanbulag , Mongolia ( Mǎimàichéng ) This town in Selenge Province began with the Chinese name of Mǎimàichéng ‘Trading City’ because it was a major trading centre with Kyakhta to the north in Russia. After the establishment of the Mongolian People’s Republic in 1924 the present name, ‘Golden Spring’ from the Turkic-Mongolian altan ‘golden’ and bulag ‘spring’, was adopted. Töv Province also has a town with this...

Cape Province

Cape Province (South Africa)   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Place Names (5 ed.)

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...Cape Province , South Africa ( Cape Colony ) With the establishment of the Union of South Africa in 1910 , Cape Colony, founded by the Dutch in 1652 and ceded to Britain in 1814 , was renamed the Province of the Cape of Good Hope, shortened to Cape Province. In 1994 the province was split into three smaller provinces: Eastern Cape, Northern Cape, and Western Cape. North West Province also received some territory from...

Sydney

Sydney (Australia, Canada)   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Place Names (5 ed.)

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...governor of New South Wales ( 1788–92 ), arrived and he renamed it Sydney Cove after Thomas Townshend ( 1733–1800 ), 1st Viscount Sydney, the British home secretary ( 1783–9 ), whose department was also associated with the colonies at the time. Viscount Sydney promoted the establishment of a settlement in New South Wales for reformed convicts. The ‘Cove’ was later dropped. 2. Canada (Nova Scotia): founded in 1783 as a refuge for United Empire Loyalists and named after the 1st Viscount Sydney....

Vanuatu

Vanuatu   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Place Names (5 ed.)

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...mother and wife; he named the largest island Espíritu Santo. They were rediscovered by the French in 1768 and charted by Captain James Cook in 1774 ; he named them after the Scottish New Hebrides because of their fancied resemblance. Anglo-French rivalry resulted in the establishment of an Anglo-French Condominium in 1906 . Independence was gained in 1980 at which time the name was changed to Vanuatu ‘Our Land Forever’ from the Polynesian/Fijian vanua ...

Cuba

Cuba (Portugal, USA)   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Place Names (5 ed.)

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...Place’, possibly a reference to its roughly central location in the Caribbean. From 1511 to 1898 Cuba was a Spanish colony. The island was occupied by American military forces between 1898 and 1902 and in 1906–9 ; in 1903 the Treaty of Relations authorized the establishment of an American naval base at Guantánamo Bay which still exists to this...

Pennsylvania

Pennsylvania (USA)   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Place Names (5 ed.)

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...following year. The region was not named after him but after his dead father, Admiral Sir William Penn ( 1621–70 ), at the insistence of the king who had owed the admiral £16 000. The admiral had been irked by his son’s admiration for the Quakers and his squabbles with the establishment, and so the king was glad to be able to pay off the debt to the family by granting land to the son in a far-away country. The younger Penn wanted to call the region New Wales, but when this was denied suggested Sylvania from the Latin silva ‘forest’ or ‘woodlands’. This was...

Suzhou

Suzhou (China)   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Place Names (5 ed.)

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...although it was also called Gusu with sū ‘perilla’, a type of ornamental plant. In 724–78 it was called the Wu Prefecture, but thereafter Suzhou became the accepted name, although Pingjiang from píng ‘peaceful’ or ‘calm’ and jiāng ‘river’ was also used following the establishment of Pingjiang Jùn ‘district’. The Suzhou in Anhui takes its name from the ancient Kingdom of...

Ulster

Ulster (UK)   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Place Names (5 ed.)

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...the other three, Cavan, Donegal, and Monaghan, joined the Irish Free State). This new political entity became known as Northern Ireland. In 1921 the Northern Ireland Parliament was inaugurated. Early the following year an Anglo-Irish treaty was ratified, confirming the establishment of the Irish Free State ( see ireland ) and Northern Ireland as part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Northern Ireland is now often referred to as...

Indonesia

Indonesia   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Place Names (5 ed.)

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...who had already ousted the Portuguese. From 1602 the Dutch East India Company gradually conquered the area and held sway until its dissolution in 1798 . The Dutch government assumed control in 1816 and ruled until 1941 when the Japanese occupation began. Until the establishment of Dutch colonial rule the region had never constituted a single political entity. In 1945 an independent republic was declared but this was not recognized by the Dutch until they transferred sovereignty in 1949 . Nevertheless, 17 August 1945 is celebrated as independence...

Malacca

Malacca (Melaka/Malaysia)   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Place Names (5 ed.)

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...the island of Sumatra, Indonesia), arrived at the site of the present city-port c. 1403 and saw a white mouse deer kick one of his hunting dogs into the water. He considered this to be a rare sign of courage for so small an animal and he took it to be a good omen for the establishment of a permanent settlement. Because he was standing under an āmalaka at the time he gave the settlement this name. However, it has also been suggested that the name is derived from the Sanskrit mahā ‘great’ and lankā ‘island’. Paramesvara converted to Islam and became the...

Balfour

Balfour (Canada, New Zealand, South Africa, UK, USA)   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Place Names (5 ed.)

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...train stopped here. He is better known as the foreign secretary (1916–19) who wrote a letter to Baron Rothschild (1868–1937), a leader of British Jewry, in November 1917, now known as the Balfour Declaration, in which he stated: ‘His Majesty’s Government view with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people’, which led to the creation of Israel in 1948. 3. UK (Scotland): founded in the 1780s as Shoreside on the Orkney Island of Shapinsay by Thomas Balfour. An estate was developed, and in 1846 his grandson, David Balfour, inherited...

Japan

Japan   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Place Names (5 ed.)

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...monarch instead of a divine ruler. A united Japan came into existence during the 4th century under the rule of the House of Yamato. After nearly 700 years of shogunate rule (although under samurai control at times), Japan’s modern political era began in 1868 with the establishment of a reunified state under the rule of the Emperor Meiji ( 1868–1912 ), known as the Meiji Restoration. At the end of the Second World War in 1945 a defeated Japan was occupied by US military forces and effectively lost its sovereignty. This was regained in 1952 when the...

Oman

Oman   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Place Names (5 ed.)

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...although Magan is also said to relate to a ‘seafaring people’ or ‘shipbuilders’ in Sumerian; a magan is a type of ship’s hull. This latter meaning, however, may refer to Mazoun, another early name, and associated with water; perhaps an abundance of water inland allowing the establishment of farming communities. By 700 bc the name Magan had been replaced by Qade. The name Oman is also said to come from Uman in Yemen, from where some tribes migrated. The city of Omana is mentioned by Ptolemy...

Vietnam

Vietnam   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Place Names (5 ed.)

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...protectorates of Tonkin (northern Vietnam) and Annam (central), and the colony of Cochinchina (southern), which the Vietnamese called Bac Bo, Trung Bo, and Nam Bo respectively. Vietnam as a state ceased to exist. In 1945 the Vietnamese declared their independence and the establishment of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV). French forces, however, returned and the following year the Republic was recognized as a Free State within the French Union; in 1949 it was entitled the Associated State of Vietnam while the Communist world continued to call it...

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