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Overview

Establishment

Subject: Religion

In ecclesiastical usage, the recognition by the State of a particular Church as that of the State. In OT Judaism and in much of the ancient world, religious observance was part of the ...

San Marino

San Marino   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
468 words
Illustration(s):
1

...three senior politicians on corruption charges reduced popular support for the established political parties, and in the 2016 elections, after two rounds of votes, a coalition of leftist and populist parties, Adesso.sm (Now.sm) came to power, reflecting the growth of anti-establishment politics in Italy and elsewhere. See also Country data table http://www.sanmarino.sm/on-line/en/home.html Republic of San Marino official site http://www.smtvsanmarino.sm/ San Marino RTV online news site (in Italian) ...

Slovenia

Slovenia   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,267 words
Illustration(s):
2

...independence, politics has generally been consensual, based on broad coalitions. In 1992 Slovenes opted for familiar figures. The largest single party was the centre-left Liberal Democracy of Slovenia ( LDS ), led by Janez Drnovšek , a member of the previous communist establishment who formed a coalition with the Slovene Christian Democrats ( SKD ). In 1996 voters once again made the LDS the largest party, though with fewer seats. The government that emerged early in 1997 , again headed by Drnovšek , also included the populist, centre-right Slovene...

Grenada

Grenada   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
558 words
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1

...main source of foreign exchange is now tourism. There are more than 130,000 annual stopover visitors, and around 240,000 arrive on cruise ships. In total, tourism contributes just under a quarter of GDP and provides around 10,000 jobs. One other recent success has been the establishment of the St George’s Medical School, a private medical school that attracts students from around the world to Grenada. In 2018, Grenada signed up to China’s Belt and Road Initiative, with the two countries planning to work together on infrastructure and low-cost housing projects...

French Guiana

French Guiana   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
668 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the Marons, who are descendants of prisoners who escaped to the interior; and immigrants from other French territories. There are even some people from the Hmong ethnic group from Laos. The economy The country benefits from generous aid from France, particularly since the establishment in 1968 at Kourou, 60 kilometres west of the capital, of the rocket-launching base run by the European Space Agency, which provides around a sixth of the national income. This and other government services employ not just French people but also many local workers. As a...

Ethiopia

Ethiopia   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,450 words
Illustration(s):
2

...series of political traumas and civil wars. Following a famine in 1972–74 , which cost an estimated 200,000 lives, political unrest led to the overthrow of the monarchy of Haile Selassie and in 1975 to the establishment of a socialist republic. But civilian groups failed to cohere into viable political parties, leaving the way clear for the establishment of a 17-year military regime, the Provisional Military Administrative Council, known in Amharic as the ‘Derg’. From 1977 , the Derg was controlled by Colonel Mengistu Haile Mariam, whose repressive regime tried...

Guatemala

Guatemala   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,396 words
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2

...as was his vice-president; and other charges followed. This scandal developed as the campaign for the next presidential elections got under way. The election result showed a rejection of the political establishment by the electorate who chose Jimmy Morales , a comedian with little political experience, but who was backed by members of the military establishment. He has made little impression on major issues such as drug and other violence, and has faced increasing criticism for his lack of action, for appointing established political and business figures to...

Italy

Italy   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,634 words
Illustration(s):
2

...it was further weakened when Berlusconi was banned from public office and pulled his party out of the coalition. In early 2014 Letta resigned to be replaced by Matteo Renzi , the radical mayor of Florence. His main challenges were to reform the political and bureaucratic establishment in order to stimulate growth. In 2014 Italy’s GDP was still 10 per cent below that of 2007 and unemployment was continuing to rise. Renzi’s plans for constitutional change that would centralize more power in the national government were defeated in a referendum in late 2016...

Pakistan

Pakistan   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,001 words
Illustration(s):
2

...with the government burdened by extensive debts to China. With the PML being led by Nawaz Sharif’s brother and the PPP by Benazir Bhutto’s son, many felt that the establishment had not delivered. The beneficiary of this was Imran Khan and his Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf (PTI) party, which became the lead party in a coalition government with various minor parties. Khan combined popular non-establishment views with the backing of the military. Keeping these two very different groupings happy while reviving the economy and the country’s self-esteem, will be a...

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bosnia and Herzegovina   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,342 words
Illustration(s):
2

...should end in 2008 , but in 2007 it was agreed to extend it indefinitely until certain benchmarks have been reached. By 2002 , the complex state structure became discredited by a bankrupt economy with up to three quarters of the population unemployed, and the establishment in many areas of organized crime. The tenth anniversary of the Dayton Agreement in 2005 coincided with international pressure to overcome the unworkable heterogeneity of state institutions, and to create structures for a common army, an integrated police force, and a more...

Hong Kong

Hong Kong   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,231 words
Illustration(s):
1

...and 20 per cent of the population are estimated to be below the national poverty line. At 2.4 mobile phones per resident, it has the highest ownership figure in the world. In 2017, Hong Kong’s per capita GDP was just ahead of that of the USA. The economy Since its establishment, Hong Kong has always been an entrepôt for trade with mainland China, and it is now the seventh-largest importing and exporting territory in the world. Much of this trade is handling goods either coming in or leaving China, but it does also have its own manufacturing sector,...

Ukraine

Ukraine   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,524 words
Illustration(s):
2

...infuriated both Putin and the Russian Orthodox Church (which then broke with the Patriarchate of Constantinople, the traditional leader of all Orthodox Christians). Presidential elections took place at the end of March 2019. In a protest against the conventional political establishment, voters rejected Poroshenko and Tymoshenko in favour of the comedian, Volodymyr Zelensky, a political novice best known for playing the president in a popular Ukrainian television satire. One of his first acts was to call snap parliamentary elections for July 2019, but his...

Bolivia

Bolivia   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,329 words
Illustration(s):
2

... presidential election to Hugo Banzer Suarez , formerly a military dictator. He retired due to ill health in 2001 , and was succeeded by Jorge Quiroga Ramirez, but in the 2002 elections, Sánchez de Lozada returned to power. There was a major protest vote against the establishment, with the indigenous representative of the coca growers, Evo Morales, of the Movimiento al Socialismo ( MAS ), obtaining the second largest vote, with 20.9 per cent. Sánchez de Lozada ’s second term was brief. After violent protests over a proposed gas pipeline he was...

Costa Rica

Costa Rica   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,195 words
Illustration(s):
2

...president. Her administration failed to deliver on policies and was beset by scandal, and Chinchilla’s popularity quickly fell. In the 2014 presidential elections the PLN lost to Luis Guillermo Solís of the PAC, disrupting the usual two-party system. His populist, anti-establishment style went down well as he aimed to bring more transparency into government, especially after the previous president. While widely commended for offering temporary sanctuary to Cuban and other migrants wishing to get to the USA, he was unable to reduce the government deficit...

Croatia

Croatia   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,509 words
Illustration(s):
2

...largest private company that was about to collapse. In 2017 the Permanent Court of Arbitration at The Hague ruled that Slovenia should have direct access to the high seas through an area which Croatia regards as its territorial waters. The dispute dates back to the establishment of the two countries, and Croatia immediately rejected the ruling. Both countries have ruled out further negotiations, and Slovenia has taken Croatia to the European Court of Justice over the dispute, and its ruling is awaited. The inability of two EU countries to agree on...

Cuba

Cuba   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,453 words
Illustration(s):
2

..., reopened their embassies, and began to lift restrictions that had been established by both countries. Symbols of the changes sweeping Cuba were the 2015 visit by Pope Francis , which included a meeting with Fidel, and, in 2016 , the visit by President Obama and the re-establishment of direct Cuba–USA flights. However, with the inauguration of President Trump in 2017 , Cuban–US relations went into decline as the US administration reversed many of Obama’s changes. Raúl’s term of office ended in 2018 , and his successor, Miguel Díaz-Canel, a senior party...

Korea, South

Korea, South   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,318 words
Illustration(s):
2

...of North Korea in the Winter Olympics hosted by South Korea, and in Moon’s unprecedented meetings with Kim to discuss peace and some demilitarization of the Korean peninsula, a result of a dramatic policy shift by Kim. Further acts of cooperation followed, including the establishment of a joint liaison office with the North (providing a permanent means for direct contact) and a joint application to host the 2032 Olympic Games. See also Country data table http://english.president.go.kr/ President of the Republic of Korea official site http://www.korea.net/...

Romania

Romania   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,373 words
Illustration(s):
2

...to charges being brought against prominent politicians and businessmen. In 2005 an accession treaty with the EU was signed and with progress in fighting corruption and in creating new, transparent administrative structures, Romania was able to join the EU in 2007 . The establishment took its revenge for Basescu ’s reformism by successfully initiating impeachment procedures against him. Since Basescu remained popular, however, he won a resounding victory in a referendum that rejected his impeachment. The EU was not entirely satisfied with the progress...

Turkey

Turkey   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,910 words
Illustration(s):
2

...the EU hardened, as the state reversed some of its liberalization measures in its fight against the PKK’s demands for Kurdish independence. As a result negotiations have stalled. Following his inability to name the next president owing to the opposition of the republican establishment, Erdogan called new elections in 2007 . In these, the AKP increased its share of the popular vote to 47 per cent. Erdogan and the AKP were returned for a third term in 2011 , though with a smaller majority. One of their objectives was to replace a constitution that had been...

Israel

Israel   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,720 words
Illustration(s):
2

...21 per cent of the population living below the poverty line. The economy Over its lifetime, Israel has shifted from a simple agricultural society to an export-driven high-tech industrial economy—particularly during the 1990s, with the influx of new professionals and the establishment of communications technology and software enterprises concentrated around Tel Aviv. Israel also has high-tech agriculture which has to make sophisticated use of limited water resources. As well as being self-sufficient in food, Israel is a major exporter of citrus and other fruits...

United Kingdom

United Kingdom   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,257 words
Illustration(s):
2

...impacted on many working families, was reversed after the House of Lords rejected the change. In November 2015 , parliament voted to join the bombing campaign against the so-called Islamic State in Syria, a vote that divided the Labour Party, now led by the left-wing, anti-establishment Jeremy Corbyn . Cameron concluded his negotiation over the UK’s terms of membership of the EU in February 2016 and a referendum was held in June 2016 on whether the UK should stay or leave the EU. The result showed that 52 per cent of those who voted wished to leave the...

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