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Establishment

Subject: Religion

In ecclesiastical usage, the recognition by the State of a particular Church as that of the State. In OT Judaism and in much of the ancient world, religious observance was part of the ...

succession

succession   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
38 words

...Orderly change in plant and animal life in a biotic community over a long time period. It is the result of modifications in the community environment. The process ends in establishment of a stable ecosystem ( climax community...

World Meteorological Organization

World Meteorological Organization   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
44 words

...Meteorological Organization ( WMO ) Intergovernmental organization, a specialized agency of the United Nations since 1950 . It promotes cooperation in meteorology through the establishment of a network of meteorological stations worldwide, and by the mutual exchange of weather information. Its headquarters are in Geneva,...

civil list

civil list   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
42 words

...list Annual grant voted by Parliament to supply the expenses of the royal establishment in Britain. In 1993 , the number of royal family members on the civil list was reduced to the Queen, the Duke of Edinburgh, and the Queen...

World Health Organization

World Health Organization   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
63 words

...Health Organization ( WHO ) Intergovernmental organization, a specialized agency of the United Nations . Founded in 1948 , it collects and shares medical and scientific information and promotes the establishment of international standards for drugs and vaccines. WHO has made major contributions to the prevention of diseases such as malaria, polio, leprosy and tuberculosis, and the eradication of smallpox. Its headquarters are in Geneva,...

British Medical Association

British Medical Association   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

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Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
53 words

...Medical Association ( BMA ) UK professional body founded in 1832 ; 66% of all doctors in Britain are members. The BMA was set up to advance the medical sciences. Since the establishment of the National Health Service ( NHS ) in 1948 , it has also negotiated over pay and conditions for hospital doctors and general...

devolution

devolution   Quick reference

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
47 words

...Delegation of authority and political power from a central legislature to a regional government. Central government retains overall constitutional control. In the UK, central government has devolved power to Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland with the establishment of separate Parliaments. The Scottish Parliament has tax-varying...

Meiji, Mutsohito

Meiji, Mutsohito (1852–1912)   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
46 words

...Mutsohito ( 1852–1912 ) Emperor of Japan ( 1867–1912 ). His reign saw the transformation of Japan into a modern industrial state. Mutsohito introduced sweeping reforms, including the abolition of the feudal system, a western-style constitution, the establishment of state education, and the encouragement of industrial...

Morgan, Thomas Hunt

Morgan, Thomas Hunt (1866–1945)   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
50 words

...Thomas Hunt ( 1866–1945 ) US biologist who received the 1933 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine for the establishment of the chromosome theory of heredity . His discovery of the function of chromosomes through experiments with the fruit-fly ( Drosophila ) is related in his book The Theory of the Gene ( 1926...

polyester

polyester   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

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Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
62 words

...Class of organic substance composed of large molecules arranged in a chain or a network and formed from many smaller molecules through the establishment of ester linkages. Polyester fibres are resistant to chemicals and are made into ropes and textiles. Polyester plastics are used to make automobile parts, boats and bottles. Polyester films are used in sealing tapes and insulation...

punk

punk   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
57 words

...Term used to describe music and fashion of the mid-1970s, characterized by raw energy and iconoclasm. Heavily influenced by US bands, such as the New York Dolls, punk was pioneered in Britain by such as the Sex Pistols and The Clash. Often anti-establishment, the associated fashions in dress, hair and make-up were also designed to...

Black Panthers

Black Panthers   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
82 words

...Panthers Revolutionary party of African-Americans in the 1960s and 1970s. It was founded by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale in 1966 . The Black Panthers called for the establishment of an autonomous black state, armed resistance to white repression, and the provision of social welfare organizations in poor black areas. Armed clashes with police occurred and several leaders, including Newton, fled abroad to escape prosecution. Leadership conflicts and the decline of black militancy reduced the influence of the Panthers in the...

Bonn

Bonn   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

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Current Version:
2004
Subject:
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Length:
83 words

...City and capital of former West Germany on the River Rhine, North Rhine-Westphalia, w Germany. Founded in the 1st century ad as a Roman military establishment, it later became the seat of the electors of Cologne ( 1238–1797 ) and was awarded to Prussia by the Congress of Vienna ( 1815 ). Bonn was capital of West Germany from 1949 until German reunification in 1990 . Sights include a Romanesque cathedral and the Poppelsdorf Palace. Beethoven was born here. Industries: engineering, laboratory equipment. Pop. ( 1999 )...

Boston

Boston   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
78 words

...at the mouth of the Charles River, on Massachusetts Bay. Founded in 1630 , it became a Puritan stronghold and the scene of several incidents leading to the outbreak of the American Revolution. A religious and cultural centre, Boston is the home of many important educational establishments. Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology ( MIT ) are situated nearby. Industries: publishing, banking and insurance, shipbuilding, electronics, fishing, clothing. Pop. ( 2000 )...

British Antarctic Territory

British Antarctic Territory   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
85 words

...Islands, and Graham Land. Formerly part of the Falkland Islands , the territory became a British Crown colony in 1962 , although Argentina and Chile claim parts of it. There are no permanent settlements, but teams of scientists occupy meteorological stations and other establishments of the British Antarctic Survey. Area: 1,725,000sq km (666,000sq...

Council for Mutual Economic Assistance

Council for Mutual Economic Assistance   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
69 words

...states, especially in Eastern Europe. Led by the Soviet Union, its original members were Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania; later joined by Cuba, Mongolia, and Vietnam. Cooperation took the form of bilateral trade agreements rather than the establishment of a single market or a uniform price...

Fatimid

Fatimid   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

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Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
87 words

...Fatimids quickly overthrew the Sunni rulers in most of nw Africa. By ibn Husayn's death ( 934 ), the Fatimid Empire expanded into s Europe, and in 969 they captured Egypt and established the Mosque and University of Al-Azhar, one of the most influential educational establishments in contemporary Islam. By the end of the 11th century, Egypt was all that remained of the Fatimid...

Great Smoky Mountains

Great Smoky Mountains   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

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Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
66 words

...Part of the Appalachians , on the North Carolina-Tennessee border, USA. One of the oldest ranges on Earth, it includes the largest virgin forest of red spruce. The region is renowned for its flora and fauna. Early 20th-century exploitation of the region was restricted by the establishment of a national park. The highest point is Clingmans Dome, 2,026m (6,643ft). Area: 2,090sq km (806sq...

Greece, Ancient

Greece, Ancient   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
92 words

...Ancient Period beginning with the defeat of the second Persian invasion in 479 bc and ending with the establishment of Macedonian power in 338 bc . Warring city-states flourished as centres of trade. Athens , the most wealthy and powerful, developed a democratic system under the guidance of Pericles . Its main rival was the military state of Sparta . Classical Greece was the birthplace of many ideas in art, literature, philosophy and science – among them those of Plato and Aristotle . It is traditionally regarded as the birthplace of Western...

Hare, Sir David

Hare, Sir David (1947)   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
76 words

...Sir David 1947 –  English playwright and director . He collaborated with Howard Brenton on Pravda ( 1985 ), a study of media corruption. Hare wrote a ‘State of the Nation’ trilogy on the British establishment: Racing Demon ( 1990 ) on the Church of England; Murmuring Judges ( 1991 ) on the legal system; and The Absence of War ( 1993 ) on politics. His screenplays include Plenty and Wetherby (both 1985 ). Other works include Via Dolorosa ( 1998 ) and The Blue Room ( 1999...

Ursula, Saint

Ursula, Saint (active 4th century ad)   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
66 words

...to some traditions, was a British princess. She was especially honoured at Cologne, where she is said to have been slain by the Huns with her 11 (or in some reports 11,000) virgins on their return from a pilgrimage to Rome. She became the patron Saint of many educational establishments, including the Ursuline...

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