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Establishment

Subject: Religion

In ecclesiastical usage, the recognition by the State of a particular Church as that of the State. In OT Judaism and in much of the ancient world, religious observance was part of the ...

Ernst Tugendhat

Ernst Tugendhat  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
(1930– ).One of the most important contributors to the re-establishment of analytic philosophy in Germany after the Nazi period, in which almost all analytic philosophers had to leave the country. ...
Mehdi Ha'Iri-Yazdi

Mehdi Ha'Iri-Yazdi  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
(1923–99)Mehdi Ha'iri-Yazdi grew up in a distinguished family in Iran, and like them became a part of the religious establishment in the country. He was born in Qom in ...
Professionalization of Philosophy

Professionalization of Philosophy  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
Professionalization of philosophy, broadly conceived, might be understood to cover the development of philosophical education, the fostering of philosophic interests and the establishment of formal ...
William Warburton

William Warburton  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
(1698–1779),rose to be bishop of Gloucester in 1759. He was much engaged in theological controversy, writing with vigour and arrogance. He was author of The Divine Legation of Moses (1738–41), A View ...
William Harvey

William Harvey  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
(1578–1657),practised medicine in London and became influential in the College of Physicians. Harvey's discovery of the circulation of blood was announced in De motu cordis (1628; English trans. ...
Leonard Trelawny Hobhouse

Leonard Trelawny Hobhouse  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
(b. 8 Sept. 1864, d. 21 June 1929).British Liberal theorist Born at St Ive, near Liskeard, Cornwall, he was educated at Marlborough and Oxford. He taught philosophy at Oxford (1890–7), publishing his ...
Rogers, John

Rogers, John (1679–1729)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
117 words

...the former. Reflections on the Conduct of the Modern Deists ( 1727 ) is a response to Anthony Collins . Bibliography A Discourse of the Visible and Invisible Church of Christ (1719). Reflections on the Conduct of the Modern Deists (1727). A Vindication of the Civil Establishment of Religion ...

Grosseteste, Robert

Grosseteste, Robert (c. 1170–1253)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
152 words

...of his epistemology, where he gives an account of human understanding in terms of natural, and ultimately divine, illumination. Grosseteste also composed numerous scientific treatises, being one of a small but growing band who recognized the importance of experiment in the establishment of scientific truth. He was a pioneer in the Christian West as a translator of Aristotle from Greek into Latin. Prof. Alexander Broadie J. McEvoy , Robert Grosseteste (Oxford,...

Solovyov, Vladimir Sergeevich

Solovyov, Vladimir Sergeevich (1853–1900)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
164 words

...Influenced by German idealism, Solovyov saw development as a progression from primitive unity through differentiation to a higher reintegration. The world of spatio-temporal objects was created when Sophia, or the world-soul, separated from God. Reintegration requires the establishment of ‘all-unity’: the reuniting of the world with God in a kingdom of heaven on earth. For a time, Solovyov envisioned a theocratic utopia with all Churches and nations united under the Pope and the Russian Tsar. His later philosophy is more contemplative and less dogmatic,...

Encyclopaedists

Encyclopaedists   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
163 words

...manual of concrete ‘how-to-do-it’ advice of use to every worker in his shop. It also contained, through a complex system of ironic, and often irreverent, ‘cross-references’, a surreptitious challenge to the traditional authority of the Catholic Church, and to the political establishment as well. Publication was intermittently suspended by the authorities, but eventually permitted to see completion. The final edition of the work appeared in 1772 , and comprised a total of seventeen volumes of text and eleven volumes of technical, illustrative plates. Prof....

Tugendhat, Ernst

Tugendhat, Ernst (1930– )   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
213 words

...Ernst ( 1930–  ). One of the most important contributors to the re-establishment of analytic philosophy in Germany after the Nazi period, in which almost all analytic philosophers had to leave the country. Tugendhat, born in Brno as a Jew, emigrated to Venezuela, received his BA at Stanford 1949 , his Ph.D. in Freiburg 1956 , and his Habilitation in Tübingen 1966 . He has held professorships in Heidelberg, Starnberg, and Berlin. Trained by Heidegger in the Aristotelian and phenomenological tradition, he argues in an original way that analytic...

Renaissance philosophy

Renaissance philosophy   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
322 words

...regarded the medievals as idle sophisters writing a Latin that appeared barbaric by comparison with the courtly version contrived by Cicero . Throughout the Renaissance, works by classical philosophers were retranslated and new commentaries were produced. This led to the establishment of revivalist schools, the most important of which was the Neoplatonic academy in Florence founded by Ficino under the patronage of Cosimo de' Medici . Prof. John Haldane See also Aristotelianism ; Platonism . B. P. Copenhaver and C. B. Schmitt , Renaissance Philosophy ...

Serbian philosophy

Serbian philosophy   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
308 words

...were later cited as authoritative in such works as Lee's Zeno of Elea (Cambridge, 1936 ) and Boyer's The Concepts of the Calculus (New York, 1939 ). 1940s–1960s. The philosophical tradition was dismantled in post-war Yugoslavia by the communist regime. The official establishment of ‘humanist Marxism’ followed the 1953 ideological cleansing of ‘dogmatists’. The critical attitude of members of the ‘Praxis Group’ such as Svetozar Stojanović to the governing regime led to their dismissal from Belgrade University in 1975 . The international reputation...

Cornwallis, Caroline Frances

Cornwallis, Caroline Frances (1786–1858)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
321 words

...and Hebrew, as well as several modern languages; and in time she became adept also in history, politics, law, science and philosophy. Education itself, however, was her particular interest, and she campaigned hard both for the entry of women into universities and for the establishment of so-called ‘ragged schools’. Cornwallis never married, although she received a proposal from the Swiss historian Sismondi. She lived for long periods in Italy, and had a special fondness for Tuscany. In the end she returned to England for good. Literary success came late in...

Dawson, Benjamin

Dawson, Benjamin (1729–1814)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
295 words

...faith was improper. In later life he turned to English philology. Bibliography An Examination of Dr. Rutherforth's Arguments Respecting the Right of Protestant Churches to require the Clergy to Subscribe to an Established Confession (1766). An Examination of an Essay on Establishments in Religion (1767). The Necessitarian: or The Question concerning Liberty and Necessity Stated and Discussed (1783). John Stephens See also ...

Arnold, Thomas

Arnold, Thomas (1795–1842)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
734 words

... he became Regius Professor of Modern History at Oxford. Arnold advanced a plan of ‘Christian politics’ based on a Christian citizenry that was located within a theory of historical progress, derived from the Roman model, and synthesized with a rationale for a national church establishment. In the period leading up to and immediately following the Reform Act of 1832 , the Liberal Anglicans and Arnold in particular were looking for a scientific approach to history conjoined to a defence of revealed religion to help solve current social and political problems....

international law

international law   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
476 words

...law with substantive and procedural rights derived from international law? Has an organization such as the United Nations an international personality comparable to that of a state, and are its rights in international law limited to those conceded by the states party to its establishment? Can the same be said of a non-governmental organization such as the International Red Cross? If ‘persons’ other than states can be subjects of international law rights, can they also be creators of international law rules, as states can? When can individuals, including rulers...

Duncan, Alexander

Duncan, Alexander (1708–95)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
401 words

...exists because He must and because it is impossible to conceive of His not existing. While Duncan takes an a priori, rationalistic attitude towards theological and metaphysical questions, his arguments for the observation of Christian moral practices and the retention of the establishment and authority of Christianity are strictly empirical: ‘the present existence of the Christian religion in the world is to us a strong proof of its truth and divine original’. If Christianity were abolished, as he assumes the sceptics and unbelievers wish, then the world...

Heywood, Samuel

Heywood, Samuel (1753–1828)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
1,753 words

...antiquated and erroneous doctrines about the nature of church establishments. He argued that church establishments were acceptable if they were of considerable longevity and were accompanied by complete religious toleration for dissenters (pp. 8–9). The High Church clergy, in opposing greater toleration for dissenters, portraying them as a danger to the state and raising up a spirit of ‘savage bigotry’ against them, were highlighting those aspects of the existing church establishment which were at odds with the constitution. Heywood turned their...

McAlpin, James

McAlpin, James (d. 1732)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
418 words

...1711 , and from 1714 was minister at Ballynahinch. Between his two ministerial appointments he conducted an academy or ‘philosophy school’ for the sons of dissenters at Killyleagh, County Down ( 1697–1714 ). Its existence and legality were resented by the local Episcopalian establishment, who tried by various shifts to have it suppressed. Francis Hutcheson , whose uncle was minister at Killyleagh, was McAlpin's best known student, and Hutcheson's educational career was typical of those who attended the academy: a pre-college training in classical languages...

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