View:

Overview

Establishment

Subject: Religion

In ecclesiastical usage, the recognition by the State of a particular Church as that of the State. In OT Judaism and in much of the ancient world, religious observance was part of the ...

General Council of the Press

General Council of the Press   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Journalism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
27 words

...General Council of the Press The original name of the UK’s Press Council from the time of its establishment in 1953 until 1963 . See also self-regulation...

reinscription

reinscription   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Media and Communication (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
37 words

... In cultural and literary theory, the re-establishment of an existing concept in a different form or context from its conventional one but without any radical transformation. A transgressive reinscription would subvert the concept ( see transgression...

Royal Commissions on the Press

Royal Commissions on the Press   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Journalism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
248 words

...ownership . It led to the establishment of both the General Council of the Press and the National Council for the Training of Journalists . The second commission resulted in the General Council of the Press changing its name to the Press Council and extending membership beyond the newspaper industry to include a number of lay members. The third commission recommended that the Press Council should have an equal number of lay and industry members and be chaired independently, plus a number of other reforms including the establishment of a code of conduct...

BBC governors

BBC governors   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Journalism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
115 words

...BBC governors The governing body of the BBC before the BBC Trust took over that role in 2007 in the wake of the Hutton Report . From their creation in 1927 , the BBC governors were dominated by loyal members of the UK establishment who at times of conflict were often said to adopt a deferential posture described by critics as a ‘pre-emptive cringe’. Appointed by the monarch on the advice of governments of the day, governors occasionally asserted their independence by defending the integrity of BBC journalism when it came under fire from politicians,...

news flow

news flow   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Journalism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
137 words

...of staff reporters , freelance journalists , news agencies , wire services , public relations outfits, and members of the audience via user-generated content . The news editor will get into difficulty if the news flow ever reduces to a trickle or dries up, hence the establishment of newsgathering routines such as the calls . 2. The direction in which major news stories and their framing tends to flow internationally, which has traditionally been from the more powerful countries in the world to developing countries ( see cultural imperialism...

convention

convention   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Film Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
213 words

... point of view , continuity editing , and certain deep-seated literary conventions, such as the expectation of resolution. Certain film genres are heavily reliant on conventionalized use of costume , mise - en - scene , and certain narrative tropes and themes: indeed the establishment of an interrelated set of conventions relating to form and content are central to the constitution of any genre . Convention is also a feature of cinemagoing: everyone stops talking when the opening credits of a film roll and suspends disbelief to accept that complete...

Society for Cinema and Media Studies

Society for Cinema and Media Studies   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Film Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
199 words

...New York City in 1957. The meetings led to the founding, in 1959 , of the Society of Cinematologists: the name, inspired by the French filmology movement, was changed to Society of Cinema Studies in 1969 . Annual conferences held since 1960 have tracked the emergence and establishment of film studies as an academic discipline. Since 1961 , the organization has published an academic journal, Cinema Journal (until 1966 titled The Journal of the Society of Cinematologists ) ( see film journal ). The organization provides a conduit for academic and...

hackgate

hackgate   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Journalism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
444 words

...the establishment of the Leveson Inquiry shortly afterwards, the resignations of the UK’s most senior police officer and of the government’s chief spin doctor , and the demise of the Press Complaints Commission . The scandal also resulted in the arrests of numerous journalists on suspicion of a variety of alleged offences, and compensation pay-outs totalling many millions of pounds to hundreds of people whose private communications had been accessed unlawfully in pursuit of possible stories, as well as claims that the political and police establishment had...

cultural studies

cultural studies   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Media and Communication (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
264 words

...postcolonialism , queer theory , and initially (to a lesser extent) psychoanalytic theory . It can be seen partly as a reaction against Leavisite cultural elitism and the Frankfurt school ’s bleak stance on mass culture . Its emergence as a discipline is marked by the establishment of the Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies (CCCS, or the Birmingham school ) at the University of Birmingham in the UK in 1964 (lasting until the 1990s). Primary concerns of cultural studies include: ideological processes, social and historical context, subcultures ...

Asia, film in

Asia, film in   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Film Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
271 words

...consideration of film and cinema in Asia must acknowledge the many and varied histories, traditions, and cultures across the continent. Broadly speaking, however, Asia may be subdivided into three main regions in terms of film production and consumption. East Asia saw the establishment of significant film industries in Japan , China , and Hong Kong in the 1910s and 1920s; and in the 1930s and 1940s, the Japanese industry had a particularly strong influence on the development of film industries and film cultures in Korea and Taiwan . A substantial...

modernism

modernism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Film Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
389 words

...forms and styles. 2. In cinema, expressions of modernism in films and in their contexts and modes of reception and consumption between the 1910s and the 1930s. Cinema may be regarded as an inherently modern art in several respects. Historically, its origins and its establishment as a mass medium coincide with the years from the inception to the zenith of the modern era, a period when cinema was the very latest thing, a miraculous machine in an age of machine-worship. Alongside this, cinema's distinctive formal and expressive features are by their very...

queer theory

queer theory   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Film Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
329 words

...'s Bodies That Matter is widely regarded as a founding text of queer theory. In film studies, the development of queer theory and queer cultural politics has gone hand-in-hand with the rise of poststructuralism and postmodernism within the discipline, and with the establishment of New Queer Cinema . Three trends may be identified in queer film theory. Firstly, reflection on and analysis of films, videos, and writings by self-identified queer artists and filmmakers; secondly, ‘queering the canon’ by means of queer readings of such classic films as ...

Times

Times   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Journalism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
393 words

...including coverage of the Crimean War by pioneering war correspondent William Howard Russell ( 1820–1907 ). The Times earned the nickname ‘The Thunderer’ for its reputed ability to make the powerful quake on occasions, although when it spoke it was as part of the Establishment within the bourgeois public sphere rather than as a voice of opposition ( compare radical press ); indeed, it once promoted itself as the paper for ‘top people’. It was only in 1966 that the paper put news rather than advertisements on its front page. That same year...

structuralism

structuralism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Film Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
496 words

...cultural meanings, the favoured method being to break down the object text or practice into its constituent formal elements and then to reconstruct it in such a way as to bring to light the basic rules by which it functions. In film studies, structuralism was important in the establishment and development of film theory in the late 1960s and 1970s. Its adoption arose initially from dissatisfaction with a felt lack of theoretical and methodological rigour in existing approaches to authorship and genre in cinema, and its proponents felt that a structuralist...

Canada, film in

Canada, film in   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Film Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
666 words

...James Freer. These were quickly followed by a series of films promoting Canada or Canadian products commissioned by the Bioscope Company of Canada. The success of the first Canadian feature film, Evangeline ( William Cavanaugh and Edward P. Sullivan , 1913 ) led to the establishment of film companies in a number of cities and the production of a small number of comedy , adventure, and war films . Canada's nascent film industry developed further during World War I, with a dedicated Canadian newsreel and, in 1917 , the construction of a film studio in...

Czech Republic, film in the

Czech Republic, film in the   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Film Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
581 words

...), attracted critical acclaim and an international audience. Unlike neighbouring Poland and Hungary , whose film industries were destroyed during World War II, Czechoslovakia benefited from German investment, with over a hundred films produced under occupation; and the establishment of the FAMU film school in Prague in 1947 ensured a strong foundation for the subsequent nationalization of the industry. Communist rule from 1948 brought state investment and subsidy of the film industry, along with centralized control and censorship . Soviet-style ...

Denmark, film in

Denmark, film in   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Film Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
678 words

...attendances reaching a peak this was a successful period for the Danish film industry. The 1960s saw a new wave of films by young directors, heralded by Palle Kjærulff-Schmidt 's Weekend ( 1962 ), as well as further attempts to revitalize a national cinema with the establishment of the Danish Government Film Foundation in 1965 and the opening in the following year of a national film school. The ensuing increase in domestic production was aided by the abolition in 1969 of adult censorship (and a consequent surge in sex comedies and pornography )...

Fifth Generation

Fifth Generation   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Film Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
660 words

...Mizoguchi are considered an important influence. Commentators suggest that continuing pressure from the censors was a significant factor in the adoption of an allegorical, or symbolically ambiguous style. The Fifth Generation filmmakers have increasingly become part of the establishment—with many now involved in an avowedly commercial Asian epic cinema , and with Zhang given the task of designing China's Olympic opening ceremony in 2008. A new Sixth Generation, or ‘urban generation’, has succeeded the Fifth Generation on the cutting edge of Chinese...

Japan, film in

Japan, film in   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Film Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
659 words

...acceptable. Sex films, known as pinku eiga , trod an increasingly fine line between pornography and art cinema , as in Nagisa Oshima’s censor-baiting Ai no corrida/In the Realm of the Senses ( 1976 ). Oshima had been among a generation of directors leading a 1960s anti-establishment new wave of socially-concerned films which developed innovations in film narration, often producing a ‘quality’ take on commercial genres. By the 1970s, however, with a decline in both ‘quality’ film production and cinema audiences, Japan’s commercial and auteur cinemas...

method acting

method acting   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Film Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
560 words

...experiences), and their ‘sense memory’, (recreation of their memory of physical feelings and sensations), in order to ground the work of characterization in their own lived experience. During the 1920s, Stanislavski's approach to acting became popular in the US through the establishment of the American Laboratory Theatre. In the 1930s the Stanislavski-influenced Group Theatre was founded by Stella Adler, Lee Strasberg, and Harold Clurman, staged plays by Clifford Odets ( Golden Boy ), Tennessee Williams ( A Streetcar Named Desire ), and Arthur Miller ( Death...

View: