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Establishment

Subject: Religion

In ecclesiastical usage, the recognition by the State of a particular Church as that of the State. In OT Judaism and in much of the ancient world, religious observance was part of the ...

Establishment, The

Establishment, The   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

..., The A term long used to denote in particular the established church of england , but now a popular designation for the group or class of people who have authority within a society, especially, in Britain, those who control not only the Church of England but the government, the civil service and the armed forces. It has a somewhat derogatory significance associated with reaction, privilege and ‘stuffiness’. By the ‘Establishment’ I do not mean only the centres of official power – though they are certainly part of it – but rather the whole matrix...

Establishment, The

Establishment, The   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of London Phrase & Fable

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

..., The An ironically named club founded in 1961 by Peter Cook ( 1937–95 ) and Nicholas Luard ( 1937–2004 ). Based at 18 Greek Street, Soho , the Establishment became a hot-bed of the anti-establishment satire boom of that era. It closed in 1964...

Establishment, the

Establishment, the   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

..., the a group in a society exercising power and influence over matters of policy or taste, and seen as resisting change. The term is recorded intermittently from the 1920s, but in British English derives its current use from an article by the journalist Henry Fairlie in the Spectator of 1955...

Establishment, The

Establishment, The   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Modern Phrase & Fable (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...exercised … the ‘Establishment’ can be seen at work in the activities of, not only the Prime Minister, the Archbishop of Canterbury and the Earl Marshal, but of such lesser mortals as the Chairman of the Arts Council, the Director-General of the BBC, and even the editor of the Times Literary Supplement , not to mention dignitaries like Lady Violet Bonham Carter . henry fairlie : in The Spectator ( 23 September 1955 ) In the early 1960s, Peter Cook 's ironically named London club The Establishment became a hot-bed of the anti-Establishment satire boom of...

Old English

Old English   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... commissioned by King Alfred in 890 and updated until the 12th century, of the great prose writer Aelfric (late 10th century), and of the epic poem Beowulf , which is thought to have been composed in the 8th century. Following the Norman Conquest of 1066 and its establishment of a French-speaking ruling order, the language evolved into a new form that is now called Middle English . Further reading: Peter S. Baker , An Introduction to Old English , 3rd edn (2012). http://projects.oucs.ox.ac.uk/woruldhord Woruldhord: Old English and Anglo-Saxon...

repertory

repertory   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...’s company, the Lord Chamberlain’s Men (later the King’s Men) and the 19th-century troupes known as stock companies. A strong revival of their principles, referred to as the Repertory Movement , was launched by the wealthy patroness Annie Horniman , leading to the establishment of the Manchester Repertory Theatre in 1907 , the Liverpool Playhouse ( 1911 ), the Birmingham Repertory Theatre ( 1913 ), and others in many English provincial cities. The dominant London practice in modern times has been the long run of a single play performed by a...

criticism

criticism   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...of literature against moralists and censors, classification of a work according to its genre , interpretation of its meaning, analysis of its structure and style, judgement of its worth by comparison with other works, estimation of its likely effect on readers, and the establishment of general principles by which literary works (individually, in categories, or as a whole) can be evaluated and understood. Contrary to the everyday sense of criticism as ‘fault-finding’, much modern criticism (particularly of the academic kind) assumes that the works it...

feminist criticism

feminist criticism   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...of Women in Fiction ( 1972 ) or in Judith Fetterley ’s The Resisting Reader ( 1978 ). A major redirection of attention away from the sins of male authors and towards the virtues of women’s writing (often regarded as having been unjustly neglected by a patriarchal critical establishment) was soon launched by a second wave of critics and literary historians, notably Ellen Moers in Literary Women ( 1976 ), Elaine Showalter in A Literature of Their Own ( 1977 ), and Sandra M. Gilbert with Susan Gubar in The Madwoman in the Attic ( 1979 ). This form...

Gobelin tapestry

Gobelin tapestry   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...tapestry So called from a French family of dyers founded by Jehan Gobelin ( d.1476 ). Their tapestry works in the Faubourg St Marcel, Paris, were taken over by Colbert as a royal establishment in 1662...

Plebiscite

Plebiscite   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...The modern meaning is the direct vote of the whole body of citizens of a state on some definite question. Thus Louis Napoleon ’s coup d ’ état ( 2 December 1851 ) was confirmed by a carefully ‘rigged’ plebiscite, and in November 1852 another plebiscite approved the re-establishment of the...

Reformation, The

Reformation, The   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...The Specifically, the religious revolution of the 16th century, which destroyed the religious unity of western Europe and resulted in the establishment of ‘Reformed’ or protestant churches. It aimed at reforming the abuses in the roman catholic church and ended in schism, its chief leaders being Martin Luther , Huldreich Zwingli and John Calvin . See also calvinism . Counter-Reformation, The See under counter...

Bastille

Bastille   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...now bâtir , ‘to build’) A fortress, but specifically the state prison in Paris built as a royal castle by Charles V between 1370 and 1383 , and seized and sacked by the mob on 14 July 1789 , at the beginning of the French Revolution. As used generally of a building or establishment, the word implied prison-like qualities, the equivalent of the modern colditz . See also altmark ; inventors...

Bolshevik

Bolshevik   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Properly a member of the Russian revolutionary party under lenin , which seized power in 1917 , aiming at the establishment of the supreme power of the proletariat and declaring war on capitalism. The Bolsheviks were so called from the fact that at the party conferences of 1902–3 the Leninists were the majority group (Russian bol’she , ‘more’). The defeated minority were called mensheviks . See also bollinger bolshevism . Bolshie or Bolshy A contraction of bolshevik , used to denote a person with left-wing tendencies, or a rebellious or...

Campden Wonder, The

Campden Wonder, The   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...A local youth, John Perry , confessed to killing Harrison and was hanged; but two years later Harrison reappeared, claiming to have been kidnapped and sold into slavery in the Near East. The veracity of his bizarre story and the reason for Perry’s confession continue to defy establishment...

Cliveden set, The

Cliveden set, The   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...) for the right-wing politicians and journalists who gathered for weekend parties in the late 1930s at Cliveden, the country home of Lord and Lady Astor in Buckinghamshire. They included Geoffrey Dawson , editor of The Times (and self-styled ‘secretary-general of the establishment’), and Lord Lothian . They favoured the appeasement of nazi ...

Altmark, The

Altmark, The   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...The Formerly in the Royal Navy, an opprobrious synonym for a ship or an establishment with a reputation for very strict discipline. It derives from a naval exploit of February 1940 , when Captain (later Admiral of the Fleet) Philip Vian , commanding the destroyer HMS Cossack , entered Norwegian territorial waters to effect the release of 299 British prisoners of war from the German supply ship Altmark , which had taken refuge in...

Fasti

Fasti   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...In ancient Rome, working days when the law courts were open. Holy days ( dies non ) when the law courts and other establishments were not open were called nefasti . The fasti were listed in calendars, and the list of events occurring during the year of office of a pair of consuls was called fasti consulares . Hence, any chronological list of events of office holders became known as fasti . The surviving six books of Ovid’s Fasti (1st century bc ) are a poetical account of the Roman festivals of the first six months of the year. See also calends...

Flimsy

Flimsy   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...The white £5 Bank of England note, which ceased to be legal tender in March 1961 , was known as a flimsy. In the Royal Navy the name is also given to the brief certificate of conduct issued to an officer by his captain on the termination of his appointment to a ship or establishment. The derivation is again from the thin-quality...

Parc aux Cerfs

Parc aux Cerfs   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...was scrupulously kept concealed; but one girl, more bold than the rest, rifled the pockets of M. le Comte, and found that he was no other than the king. Madame de Pompadour did not shrink from superintending the labours of the royal valets to procure victims for this infamous establishment. The term is now used for an Alsatia, or haven of shipwrecked characters. ‘Boulogne may be proud of being “parc aux cerfs” to those whom remorseless greed drives from their island home.’ from Brewer’s Dictionary of Phrase & Fable ( 1896...

Terrier

Terrier   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Forces Act ( 1907 ) superseded the old Militia, Yeomanry and Volunteers on a territorial basis until it was absorbed into the newly created Territorial and Army Volunteer Reserve in 1967 . The strength of the Territorial Army itself has diminished in recent years, with an establishment of 74,000 in the early 1980s declining to about 40,000 in 2005 . Border terrier See under border...

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