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Overview

Establishment

Subject: Religion

In ecclesiastical usage, the recognition by the State of a particular Church as that of the State. In OT Judaism and in much of the ancient world, religious observance was part of the ...

Red Guards

Red Guards ((China))   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
89 words

...of the Cultural Revolution , consisting of bands of students which followed Mao Zedong 's instruction to root out the enemies of the (permanent Maoist ) revolution. In 1966–7 , hoards of marauding youths roamed through the streets, venting their frustrations against the establishment in party, bureaucracy, and education facilities. Teachers were attacked and denounced for being ‘bourgeois’, and even parents became subject to denunciation and public censure. They soon got out of control, and were overpowered by the military in 1967...

Weizmann, Chaim

Weizmann, Chaim (27 Nov. 1874)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
188 words

...from Britain recognition of the Jewish Agency , in which he played a major part. He supported the establishment of the Hebrew University in Jerusalem and other cultural institutions that were prerequisites for statehood. He was an effective and influential lobbyist for the international recognition of a state of Israel after World War II, gaining the sympathy of the UN as well as of the USA under Truman . The importance of his role in the establishment of an Israeli state was reflected in his election as the country's first head of...

ecumenical movement

ecumenical movement   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
239 words

...from the Greek oikoumenë (‘the whole inhabited world’). Its aim is to unite all believers in Christ, transcending all divisions of denomination. The beginnings of the modern movement culminated in the World Missionary Conference in Edinburgh in 1910 , which led to the establishment of an International Missionary Council and to further interdenominational meetings. The institution of a World Council of Churches was held up by World War II, but in 1948 it met for the first time in Amsterdam, with the participation of representatives from 147 churches...

Konoe Fumimaro

Konoe Fumimaro (12 Oct. 1891)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
242 words

...support to the popular party governments of the 1920s, while emphasizing the important part played in Japan's Constitution by the peerage. Konoe opposed European colonialism in Asia, advocating more strident Japanese leadership in the region. With the support of the political establishment, he was appointed President of the upper chamber in 1933 . During the 1930s, he was at the centre of Japan's political life, and formed his first government in 1937 . As Prime Minister during the Sino-Japanese War after the Marco Polo Bridge Incident ( 7 July 1937 ), his...

Ujamaa

Ujamaa ((Tanzania))   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
113 words

...it describes the cooperative village units set up in Tanzania following the Arusha Declaration . As a result, the number of Ujamaas increased from 180 (comprising 58,000 people) in 1968 to around 7,000 (comprising over twelve million people) ten years later. While the establishment of Ujamaas increased literacy, lowered infant mortality, and reduced inter-tribal rivalry, they led to a fall in agricultural production and infrastructure investment. The Ujamaa principle was rapidly reformed after the resignation of President Nyerere in 1985. His advocacy...

Tehran Conference

Tehran Conference (28 Nov. – 1 Dec. 1943)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
108 words

...between Churchill , Roosevelt , and, for the first time, Stalin , in the Iranian capital of Tehran. Stalin's demand for a second front in France in the summer of 1944 was coordinated with plans for a Soviet summer offensive in 1944 . The three leaders discussed the establishment of the UN after the war, and Stalin pressed for a future Soviet sphere of influence in the Baltic States and Eastern Europe. Finally, Stalin indicated Soviet willingness to join the war against Japan once Germany had been defeated. See also Cairo Conference ; Yalta Conference...

warlords

warlords   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
104 words

...warlords A term used to describe the leaders of personal armies throughout China. They dominated China from the collapse of central government after Yuan Shikai 's death in 1916 , until the establishment of the National Government through Chiang Kai-shek 's Northern Expedition . Warlords usually had control over an area commensurate with their military strength, which enabled them to collect taxes and control other resources, such as manpower or food production. Most of them were either defeated in the Northern Expedition, or they accepted Chiang's...

Iran hostage crisis

Iran hostage crisis (4 Nov. 1979–20 Jan. 1981)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
113 words

...Iran hostage crisis ( 4 Nov. 1979–20 Jan. 1981 ) Following the establishment of the Islamic Republic of Iran under Ayatollah Khomeini in 1979 , public hostility against the USA, which had heavily sponsored the regime of Shah Reza Pahlavi , formed an important unifying force in the new state. Against this background, supporters of the revolution seized the US embassy in Tehran, taking 66 US citizens hostage. All efforts of President Carter to free the hostages failed, including economic measures and an abortive helicopter rescue attempt. The crisis...

French West Africa

French West Africa   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
116 words

...French West Africa Following the establishment of French settlements on the African west coast in 1659 and a gradual extension of the French West African territory during the nineteenth century, it was created a colonial territory under a Governor‐General in 1904 . In 1942 , it switched its allegiance from the Vichy government to de Gaulle . In 1946 it became an overseas territory of the French Union , but as a result of strong nationalist pressures in the constituent colonies, Senegal, Ivory Coast, Mali, Niger, Benin, and Mauritania were given...

Amur River Society

Amur River Society   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
114 words

...figures on the ultra-nationalist fringe. This was an influential but small grouping of activists which promoted Japan's expansion into Manchuria and the war with Russia. The Society was able to forward its policies both with the support of sympathizers among Japan's ruling establishment and through the more direct actions of its members, who combined espionage, agitation, assassination, and scholarship at home and abroad to pursue their...

mujahidin

mujahidin   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
124 words

...to the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. Aided by generous arms supplies from the USA (via Pakistan), their guerrilla warfare led to a withdrawal of the Soviet armed forces by February 1989 . In 1992 the Communist government was finally overcome, but shortly after the establishment of an Islamic state, on 6 May 1992 , the fragile coalition fell apart. Alliances between the different factions of the mujahidin were changing constantly while the country was in a state of anarchy. Out of this chaos emerged the Northern Alliance and the Taliban , which,...

Perón, Evita

Perón, Evita (7 May 1919)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
107 words

...; d. Buenos Aires , 26 July 1952 ) Argentinian legend A radio and television actress before she became the second wife of Juan Perón in 1945 , her political instincts formed the foundation of her husband's political success until her death from cancer. Snubbed by the establishment, she built up a large popular following through her support for the poor and for women's rights. Through her husband, she achieved female suffrage in 1947 . After her death she became idolized, and her myth became a powerful link uniting the disparate strands of Peronism...

Japan, Constitution of

Japan, Constitution of (3 May 1947)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
161 words

...Japan, Constitution of ( 3 May 1947 ) Japan's fundamental law, also known as the ‘ Peace Constitution ’, was imposed on a reluctant domestic political establishment by the American occupation authorities after World War II. Despite such beginnings, it proved to be a remarkably durable institution which came to enjoy widespread support in Japan. It replaced the Meiji Constitution and instituted fundamental changes in the state and gave new rights to the people. These included the transfer of sovereignty from the Emperor to the people (preamble and Article 1),...

Calles, Plutarcho Elías

Calles, Plutarcho Elías (25 Sept. 1877)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
172 words

...alliance of traditional elites, committed to the old economic system under Díaz , and Roman Catholic opponents to the new secular state. After leaving office he remained the predominant figure in Mexican politics, and in 1929 sought to unite and confirm the new political establishment through the creation of the National Revolutionary Party ( PNR ), which later became the PRI . In 1935 the new President, Cárdenas , refused to accept Calles's dominance and sent him into exile. He was allowed to return from the USA in 1941...

Abdication Crisis

Abdication Crisis ((UK))   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
175 words

...Abdication Crisis (UK) This crisis in the British establishment was provoked by King Edward VIII 's desire to marry a twice-divorced American, Wallis Simpson . He made this announcement to senior politicians and churchmen on 16 November 1936 . Prime Minister Baldwin , the Cabinet, the Archbishop of Canterbury (Cosmo Lang), and the Dominions' representatives were all vehemently opposed to passing the special legislation necessary, partly on the grounds that marriage to a divorcee would be inconsistent with the King's role as head of the Church of England....

Chicanos

Chicanos ((USA))   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
133 words

...develop a distinctive consciousness. Chicano cultural organizations were formed, while successful trade union activity under Chávez led to some improvements in pay and working conditions in the 1960s and 1970s. Meanwhile, the 1970s brought some educational advances with the establishment of bilingual and bicultural courses. Despite this, their group identity remained brittle, as many considered themselves merely as sojourners, there to make money to take home to Mexico. In the 2010 US census, 33.6 million people identified themselves as Mexican Americans out...

Doihara Kenji

Doihara Kenji (8 Aug. 1883)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
138 words

...which involved the military takeover of north‐eastern China. In addition, he played an important part in negotiating the Doihara‐Quin Agreement ( June 1935 ), which paved the way for the withdrawal of the Guomindang from northern China, the partition of the country, and the establishment of a puppet state in Manchuria ( Manchukuo ). After 1945 Doihara was indicted as a Class A war criminal. During his trial he refused to give testimony, was found guilty and hanged. He was later enshrined at the Yasukuni Shrine in...

EFTA

EFTA   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
181 words

...EFTA ( European Free Trade Association ) Established in May 1960 on a British initiative in response to the establishment of the EEC. It was a free trade area without the EEC's commitment to further political union, whose original members were Austria, Britain, Denmark, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, and Switzerland. Though subsequently joined by Liechtenstein, Finland, and Iceland, the EFTA was too small and its members too diverse to be able to compete successfully with the EEC. In 1973 , the UK and Denmark left to join the EEC, followed by Portugal ( 1986...

Gaza-Jericho Agreement

Gaza-Jericho Agreement (13 Sept. 1993)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
180 words

...Gaza-Jericho Agreement ( 13 Sept. 1993 ) A follow-up treaty to the Oslo Accords , in which the details of Palestinian autonomy were concluded. It provided for the establishment of Palestinian autonomy in the Gaza Strip and the West Bank after a maximum transition period of five years. More immediately, it contained a detailed plan for the withdrawal of Israeli troops from the Gaza Strip and Jericho, which were the first areas to be granted Palestinian self-rule. In the following nine months, Israeli troops were to withdraw from virtually all areas of...

O'Connor, Sandra Day

O'Connor, Sandra Day (26 Mar. 1930)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
168 words

... 1981–2006 Brought up on a family ranch in Arizona, she faced a great deal of sexual prejudice after graduating from Stanford Law School—at one point she was offered a job as a secretary in a law firm. Despite this, she rose through the Arizona legal system and Republican establishment, in a remarkable career. A member of the Arizona Senate ( 1969–75 ), she became its first female majority leader ( 1973–4 ). In 1975 , she returned to the law, and was appointed to the Arizona Court of Appeals in 1979 . In 1981 , she became the first female Supreme Court ...

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