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Overview

Establishment

Subject: Religion

In ecclesiastical usage, the recognition by the State of a particular Church as that of the State. In OT Judaism and in much of the ancient world, religious observance was part of the ...

Athanagild

Athanagild   Reference library

Jamie Wood

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Visigothic king (551–67), who rebelled against his predecessor, Agila (549–55), and invited Justinian I to intervene on his side in 551/2, leading inadvertently to the establishment of a Byzantine province in southern Spain ( Isidore , Historia Gothorum , 47, Chron . 399a). Jamie Wood PLRE IIIA, Athanagildus 1. J. Wood , ‘Defending Byzantine Spain: Frontiers and Diplomacy’, EME 18 (2010),...

Odilo

Odilo (748)   Reference library

Maximilian Diesenberger

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

... (d. 748 ) Appointed Dux of Bavaria in 736/7 by Charles Martel , whose daughter he married. During the rebellions that followed S. Boniface ’s establishment of four episcopal sees in Bavaria in 739, Odilo temporarily fled to the Frankish court , but, after Charles died, he led an unsuccessful revolt against the Franks in 743. Maximilian Diesenberger RGA2 s.v. Odilo, XXI (2002), 559–61 ( H. Wolfram...

Pliska

Pliska ((Bulgaria))   Reference library

Efthymios Rizos

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

... (Bulgaria) Ruling centre of the Bulgar khagans . The view that the site dates from Late Antiquity is contested. Finds include Late Roman spolia , but no settlements earlier than the 9th century . Efthymios Rizos A. Aladzhov , ‘The Byzantine Empire and the Establishment of the Early Medieval City in Bulgaria’, in F. Daim and J. Drauschke , eds., Byzanz. Das Römerreich im Mittelalter , vol. 3 (2011), 113–58. Ćurčić , Architecture in the Balkans , 149–50; 174–8, reviewed by J. Crow in JRA 25 (2012), 972–3. Henning , Post-Roman Towns , 2. R....

decurio

decurio   Reference library

Christopher Kelly

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...(1) city councillor ( curialis ); (2) junior cavalry officer ( Vegetius , De Re Militari , 2,14); (3) decuriones Sacri Palatii or Consistorii , senior *palace officials managing the silentarii (support staff at meetings of the Consistorium ); in 437, the establishment was fixed at three decuriones and 30 silentarii ( CTh VI, 23, 4, 1). Christopher Kelly Jones, LRE 571–2. Mary Whitby , ‘On the Omission of a Ceremony in Mid-Sixth Century Constantinople: Candidati, Curopalatus, Silentiarii, Excubitores and Others’, Historia 36 (1987),...

Domus Divina per Africam

Domus Divina per Africam   Reference library

Christopher Kelly

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Divina per Africam Imperial estates in Africa managed by the Rationalis Rei Privatae Fundorum Domus Divina per Africam, responsible to the Comes Rei Privatae . The post was upgraded to Comes et Procurator Domus Divinae following the (probably temporary) establishment in 398 of the Comes Gildoniaci Patrimonii charged with adding the property of the defeated Gildo to the Domus Divina ( Not. Dig . 12.5 [ occ .]). Christopher Kelly Delmaire , Largesses ,...

John Draskhanakerts’i

John Draskhanakerts’i (925)   Reference library

Tara Andrews

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Draskhanakerts’i ( Yovhannēs Drasxanakertc‘i ) (d. c . 925 ) Catholicus of Armenia (897– c .925), author of a History of Armenia from Creation to his own time. John was a key figure in his own era (the late 9th and early 10th cent.), during the re-establishment of the kingdom of Armenia after centuries of Arab domination. His History is therefore valuable as an account of the time during which he was at the centre of Armenian politics, but it also has value for Late Antiquity. The primary sources used by John for the Late Antique history of...

Navan Fort

Navan Fort   Reference library

Nicholas J. Evans

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...1st-millennium bc political and cult centre. In Late Antiquity, the site was prominent in folk memory: tales in the Ulster Cycle (perhaps in existence by c. 400 ) mention it, later genealogies suggest erroneously it fell in the 5th century , around the time of the establishment of the Christian centre at Armagh . Nicholas J. Evans T. Kinsella , The Táin: Translated from the Irish Epic Táin Bó Cuailnge (1969). B. Wailes , ‘The Irish “Royal Sites” in History and Archaeology’, CMCS 3 (1982),...

Syagrius of Autun

Syagrius of Autun (556–599/602)   Reference library

Bruno Dumézil

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...for the mission of S. Augustine to Canterbury , asked him to preside over a reforming council of the Gallic Church, which never took place, and sent him a series of other letters . Syagrius also received letters from Venantius Fortunatus , and founded various religious establishments in Autun . Bruno Dumézil PCBE IV/2, Syagrius...

ghazi

ghazi   Reference library

Mark Dickens

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...location close to the pagan Türks , Khorasan and Transoxiana were particularly popular with ghazis , who often functioned almost like mercenaries, posing a potential threat not only to those they deemed infidels but also to the local Muslim administrative and military establishment. Mark Dickens EI 2 s.v. Ghāzī vol. 2 (1965) ( I. Mélikoff...

Peter Barsymes

Peter Barsymes   Reference library

Roger Scott

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...changer). His financial skill resulted in Theodora promoting him and his promotion enabled him to defraud military pay, sell offices, exploit control of the Constantinople food supply , embezzle taxes , reduce pensions, depreciate gold coins , and profit from his establishment of a state silk monopoly (as well as being involved with sorcerers, demons , and Manichaeans ). After his dismissal by Justinian I , Theodora arranged his almost immediate reappointment. His palatial house was burned by Blues in 562 but later given by the Emperor ...

Praetorian Guard

Praetorian Guard   Reference library

Jon Coulston

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Guard Bodyguard formation institutionalized by Augustus, and concentrated in the Castra Praetoria in Rome by Tiberius. Initially divided into nine cohorts, the establishment settled down to ten from Domitian through to the early 4th century . Cohorts were probably c. 500 strong, raised to c. 1,000 or 1,500 under Septimius Severus, each with a detachment of cavalry ( equites praetoriani ). One or two equestrian Praefecti Praetorio commanded the Guard, with each cohort under a Tribunus . The formation faithfully protected emperors for most...

Docimium

Docimium   Reference library

Philipp Niewöhner

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

... and Constantinople , when Theodosius I enlarged the new capital. Later, white Docimian marble was employed to furnish churches throughout central Anatolia, where its superior workmanship and idiosyncratic formal repertoire was imitated by local workshops and led to the establishment of a distinctive regional style. Philipp Niewöhner A. M. Hirt , Imperial Mines and Quarries in the Roman World (2010), 291–307; 318–23. P. Niewöhner , ‘Phrygian Marble and Stonemasonry as Markers of Regional Distinctiveness in Late Antiquity’, in P. Thonemann , ed., Roman...

Ennaton, Monastery of

Ennaton, Monastery of   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Monastery of Named from its location at the ninth milestone on the road west of Alexandria , Ennaton (Enaton) became a major monastic centre. At its height in the 5th–7th centuries, it included numerous independent monastic establishments federated under a superior ( hegumenos ) and community assembly. Ennaton was a centre of learning and became a haven of Coptic Miaphysite theology and devotion. Its superior Longinus rallied behind Dioscorus , Patriarch of Alexandria, during the disputes engaged at the Council of Chalcedon ( ad 451). The...

naxarar

naxarar   Reference library

Sergio La Porta

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...7th centuries . ‘ Naxarar ’ did not constitute a title or rank, but denoted members of the hereditary nobility in general. The dynasts possessed ‘immemorial rights’ including inalienable properties, privileges, and offices that derived from their sovereign status prior to the establishment of the monarchy. Property was held in common and administered by the head of the family; succession was agnatic. Although the naxarar s were theoretically considered to be of equal rank, in practice there existed a hierarchy among them that was reflected in the ‘seat’ ( gah )...

‘Nine Saints’

‘Nine Saints’   Reference library

David Phillipson

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...that a number of Christian holy men came to Aksum from parts of the Roman Empire during the late 5th and early 6th centuries . They dispersed over areas adjacent to the capital and over outlying areas further east, where they are recalled as having been responsible for the establishment of Christianity and the foundation of monasteries including Pantalewon near Aksum, Afse at Yeha, Za-Mika’el at Dabra Damo , and Garima near Adwa. The dating of such developments more than a century after the initial royal conversion is in accord with evidence from...

Transoxiana

Transoxiana   Reference library

Mark Dickens

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...largely Iranian-speaking, with the Khwarezmian , Sogdian , and Bactrian languages spoken in different parts. Local princes often ruled smaller states with economies based on agriculture and Silk Road trade . Transoxiana experienced more Turkic influence after the establishment of the First Türk Empire ( 6th cent . ad ). After the Arab conquest (7th–8th cent. ad ), Arabic and Persian became increasingly important in urban areas. Transoxiana’s principal pre-Islamic religion was Zoroastrianism , albeit in local manifestations. However, Buddhism ,...

Rome, food supply of

Rome, food supply of   Reference library

David Natal

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...by organizations of traders ( corpora ) hired by the state. Different corpora collected fiscal grain and olive oil in Africa , and transported them to Ostia and Rome, where the grain was milled and baked. Free bread and olive oil were distributed every day at special establishments called gradus and mensae oleariae ( Symmachus , Relatio , 35). Fiscal wine and meat came largely from Italy . The wine was sold for a low price at the Temple of the Sun ( CTh XI, 2, 2; CIL VI, 1785), while the meat (largely pork) was freely distributed for...

Tardu

Tardu   Reference library

Mark Dickens

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...who wrote to the Emperor Maurice in 595 ( Theophylact Simocatta , VII, 7–9) was either Tardu or Niri Qaghan. Fleeing from a revolt in 603, Tardu disappears from the sources. Mark Dickens BT II , Τάρδου ‎. PLRE III, Tardou. Chavannes , Documents , 47–52. D. Sinor , ‘The Establishment and Dissolution of the Türk Empire’, in CHEIA I (1990), 305–7. É. de la Vaissière , ‘Maurice et le qaghan’, REB 68 (2010),...

Canterbury

Canterbury   Reference library

David Petts

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...the town, but there is debate about their significance. By the later 6th century, the town was the centre for secular governance in Kent. S. Augustine ’s mission in 597 found a church east of the town dedicated to S. Martin in use ( Bede , HE I, 26). Other ecclesiastical establishments in the city trace their origin to his conversion of King Ethelbert of Kent. Clear archaeological evidence for increasing settlement within the city walls from the 7th century onwards reflects its growing importance. David Petts C. M. Johns and T. W. Potter , ‘The...

law, Islamic

law, Islamic   Reference library

Harith Bin Ramli

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Day, abrogates all pre-existing revelations and their shari‘a s. Although the Qur’ān explicitly annulled many pre-Islamic laws and customs that were seen as tainted by barbarism ( jāhiliyya ) or idolatry ( shirk ), it does not seem that the early Muslims understood the establishment of the new shari‘a as necessitating a complete rejection of all pre-existing local customs and tradition, and to this day, local custom ( ‘adat ) is considered as a source of law, albeit a subsidiary one. Modern studies have suggested that early Muslim legal tradition might...

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