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Demetrius (20)

Of Troezen (probably 1st cent. ad), wrote works on literary history. The only known title is that of his work on philosophers, Against the Sophists. Athenaeus 1. 29a;Diogenes ...

Ptolemaic Period

Ptolemaic Period   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...Henceforth the dates on Greek documents for the years of Ptolemy I's reign are counted retroactively from Alexander's death. Other Diadochi followed suit and assumed the title of king. In the fall of 306 bce , Ptolemy I repelled an invasion led by Antigonus and his son Demetrius . At the beginning of 304 bce , he became pharaoh (Egyptian documents date from year 305/4 bce [regnal Year 1] onward). During the fourth Diadoch War (303–301) Ptolemy I occupied western Syria and Phoenicia (Coele-Syria) and illegally kept possession of the province after...

Seleucids

Seleucids   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...was connected to Israel. This text mentions both Antiochus IV ( 175–164 bce ; 4Q169 3–4.i.1–3) and Demetrius III ( 95–88 bce ; 4Q169 3–4.i.1–2). Indeed Judea was deeply involved in Seleucid history for some generations after Antiochus's persecution ( 167–164 bce ). Antiochus IV died in 164 bce , and under his successor Antiochus V (a boy under the tutelage of Lysias) the war of independence in Judea continued. Antiochus V was soon replaced by Demetrius I ( 162 bce ), who made a considerable effort to consolidate his kingdom, despite Roman enmity. He...

Mtskheta

Mtskheta   Reference library

Manana Odisheli

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

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Current Version:
2018

...Svetitskhoveli (Life Pillar). Jvari (Holy Cross) Church was built by Guaram and Stephanos Eristavi, the rulers of Kartli (586–604), on a hilltop overlooking central Mtskheta, where S. Nino had erected a cross . Stone relief sculptures bear portraits of the donors Stephen, Demetrius, and Adarnarse and the cruciform plan is crowned with a dome . Guaram Eristavi also built another small church with mosaic decoration nearby. The 6th/7th-century churches at Samtavro called Antioch and Gethsemane allude to the analogy which represented Mtskheta as a second...

Sirmium

Sirmium   Reference library

Ivančica Schrunk and Rebecca Darley

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

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Current Version:
2018

...Sirmian martyrs are known only from legendary passions and martyrologies . Inscriptions provide evidence for the cults of Ss. Irenaeus ( BHL 4466; cf. BHG 448–51) and Synerotas ( BHL 7595; CIL III, 10232–3). The martyrs Ss. Anastasia (feast day 25 December) and Demetrius were also associated with Sirmium (Delehaye, Origines , 256–7). The archbishopric was removed to Iustiniana Prima in 535 . The Empire recovered Sirmium from the Gepids in 567 , and Hierocles still lists it as one of two cities in Pannonia, but the Avars captured...

festal letters

festal letters   Reference library

Khaled Anatolios and Oliver Nicholson

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

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2018

..., suggests in his Annales (PG CXI, col. 989) that it was a tradition of the Egyptian Church, beginning with the episcopate of Demetrius of Alexandria ( sed . 189–231/2), for the Bishop of Alexandria to issue a pastoral letter annually before Easter , in which he could address issues of topical pastoral concern. Eusebius quotes from several letters of Dionysius of Alexandria and mentions others as still extant ( HE VII, 20–2). Eusebius describes them as festal ( heortastikas ) though some were addressed to individuals rather than to the Church at...

Thessalonica

Thessalonica ((Thessaloniki, Greece, also formerly Salonica))   Reference library

Pelli Mastora, Rebecca Darley, and Oliver Nicholson

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

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Current Version:
2018

...in residence in 479 when a Thessalonica mob attacked him because they feared he was planning to betray the city to the Ostrogoths ( Malchus fr. 20 Blockley = 18 Müller FHG ). Slavs were threatening Thessalonica as early as 550 ( Procopius , Gothic , VII, 11, 3). The city was frequently besieged by Slavs and Avars in the late 6th and early 7th centuries ; the two books of the Miracles of S. Demetrius relate how the city was saved by the protection of its patron saint. In 688 Justinian II cleared numerous Slavs and Bulgars out of Macedonia ...

Josephus Flavius

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Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

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Current Version:
2008

...xi.4–8) as a Hasmonean ruler, whether Jonathan ( 161–142 bce ), Simon ( 142–134 bce ), or Alexander Jannaeus ( 103–76 bce ), as described by Josephus . Pesher Nahum (4Q169) mentions “Demetrius King of Greece who sought, on the counsel of those who seek smooth things, to enter Jerusalem” (4Q169 3–4.i.2), the reference probably being to Demetrius III Eukerus ( 95–88 bce ), who, upon being summoned by the Jewish opponents of King Alexander Jannaeus of Judea ( Jewish Antiquities 13.376–378), defeated him in battle. Pesher Nahum (4Q169 3–4.i.7)...

Sadducees

Sadducees   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

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2008

...king, Demetrius III Eukerus ( 95–88 bce ). Demetrius III then invaded Judea and defeated Jannaeus ( Jewish Antiquities 13.377–378), but immediately left for Syria. Jannaeus exploited this fact to exact revenge on his enemies: after taking them prisoner, he had eight hundred of them crucified in Jerusalem ( Jewish Antiquities 13.379–383). Josephus did not characterize either the supporters of Jannaeus or his opponents. However, according to the Pesher Nahum (4Q169), it was the doreshe ḥalaqot, also called “Ephraim,” who appealed to Demetrius III. Most...

High Priests

High Priests   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

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2008

...of genealogical lineage in determining Zadokite succession. There is no hint that the lineage of the Wicked Priest was a point of contention with the yaḥad . Following Jonathan's death, his brother Simon ( 142/41 –134 bce ) was confirmed as high priest by the Seleucid king Demetrius II, and the Jewish people additionally bestowed on him the title ethnarch. Under the Hasmonean dynasty the office of high priest attained its zenith of power. Simon's son John Hyrcanus ( 134–104 bce ) added the title king and was followed by his son Aristobulus I ( 104–103 ...

Greece

Greece   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

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Current Version:
2008

...is provided to determine whether one should translate it as “Greeks” or “doves.” Pesher Nahum 3–4.i.2–3 is one of the most noteworthy passages in the pesharim since it actually provides names and events that can be correlated to other historical sources. Line 2 mentions Demetrius III Eukerus ( 95–88 bce ) and calls him “king of Yavan ,” Yavan here clearly meaning the Seleucid realm. Line 3 further mentions a series of kings of Yavan , “from Antiochus until the appearance of the rulers of the Kittim .” Again, this is a clear reference to the...

mosaics

mosaics   Reference library

Sean Leatherbury

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

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Current Version:
2018

...images of the deceased. In the Balkans , mosaicists in Thessalonica , possibly sent from Constantinople , produced the 5th-century dome mosaics of the Rotunda of Galerius (later the Church of S. George ), as well as the wall and apse mosaics of the churches of S. Demetrius and the Latomus Monastery (Hosios David ). Workshops in Greece and Cyprus made the pavements of both villas and churches, indicating that there was no functional division between Christian and secular domestic production. The Cypriot workshops also created the apse...

Philo Judaeus

Philo Judaeus (c.25/20 bce–c.50)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

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2008

...Love of Virtue 84 141–42 20 Love of Humanity 84–87 8.11.1 139–40 Cf. CD vi.20–vii.1 Common Property 85–86 8.11.4–5, 10–13 122, 127 20 1QS i.11–13; v.1–2; vi.13–23 (1QS vii.6–8; CD ix.10–16; xiv.12–13) Houses Open to Other Essenes 85 8.11.5 124 Treasury with Elected Treasurer 86, 87 8.11.10 122–23, 125, cf. 134 22 1QS vi.18–20; CD xiii.15–16; xiv.12–17 Winter and Summer Clothes Cf.86 8.11.12 38–39 Cf. 125 Food 86, 91 8.11.5, 10–11 34–37 130–33, 139 1QS vi.4–6; 1Q28a ii.17–22 Treatment of the Ill 87 8.11.13 Cf. CD vi.20–21; xiv.12–17 Treatment of the...

Eschatology

Eschatology   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

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Current Version:
2008

...unreliable. While there is evidence for speculation on biblical chronology, such as we find in Demetrius, in such document as Jubilees and the Aramaic Apocryphon of Levi, there is no actual evidence that the Damascus Document used the chronology of Demetrius. The argument is simply that this chronology would support a popular hypothesis about the origin of the Dead Sea set–a hypothesis far from established fact. Besides, the chronological data attributed to Demetrius are confused and contradictory. The figure of forty years for the career of the Teacher of...

Dead Sea

Dead Sea   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

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Current Version:
2008

...a few European travelers called it “The Devil's Sea.” Early Greek writers who mention it include Aristotle ( Meteorology 2.3, 39) and Strabo (5.2.42). The mineralogical importance of the region was known from very ancient times. Alexander the Great's generals Antigonus and Demetrius tried, but failed, to subdue the Nabateans of the region in order to get at the minerals (Diodorus 19.95-96). The southern end of the Dead Sea was known for its bitumen even in biblical times ( Gn. 14.10 ). Physical Properties. The Dead Sea is one of the most interesting...

Jerusalem

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Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

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2008

...Ezekiel 20.35 , but for the Bible the desert began on the eastern slopes of the Mount of Olives ( Funk , 1959 ). On the historical level, Salem is identified as Jerusalem (Genesis Apocryphon, 1QapGen xxii.12). “The capture of Jerusalem and of Zedekiah, king of Judah” (MMT e , 4Q398 1.1–2) is used to specify the terminus ad quem of curses which came upon the southern kingdom from the time of Jeroboam son of Nebat ( cf. 1 Kgs. 11.26–25.7 ). Pesher Nahum (4Q169) 3–4.i.2–3 interprets Nahum 2.12 as a reference to the abortive effort of Demetrius III...

Hasmoneans

Hasmoneans   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

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2008

...of Jews at the hands of Jannaeus ( Jewish Antiquities 13.376), and even relates that Jews joined the forces of the Seleucid King Demetrius III Eukerus ( 95–88 bce ) in his campaign against the Hasmonean king. These rebels were ultimately defeated by Jannaeus , who reportedly had eight hundred of them crucified ( Jewish Antiquities 13.380). The events are almost certainly alluded to in Pesher Nahum, which describes “[Deme]trius, king of Greece, who sought to enter Jerusalem with the counsel of the interpreters of false laws” and who also made war “against...

Judea

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Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

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2008

... Antiquities 12.414) by any external government, it would have to have been the Romans. 5. The Maccabean forces unsuccessfully besieged the Akra, which was garrisoned with Seleucid forces and sympathetic Judeans ( 2 Mc. 5.18–20 ). Political rivalry in the Seleucid kingdom had aided Judah's exploits. But a new king, Demetrius I ( 162–150 bce ), sent a major force against the Maccabeans. In the consequent battle, in 160 bce , Judah, who was supported by a force of only eight hundred warriors, was killed ( 1 Mc. 9.1–18 ). The Maccabean movement was...

Qumran

Qumran   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

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2008

...in Jerusalem after Pompey the Great's conquest of the city ( 63 bce ). Explicit historical names appear in Pesher Nahum (4Q169), where two Seleucid kings are mentioned, Antiochus and Demetrius (4Q169 3–4.i.2–3). Antiochus probably is Antiochus IV Epiphanes ( 175–164 bce ), while Demetrius should be identified as Demetrius III Eukerus ( 95–88 bce ). Demetrius III Eukerus is linked to a third figure. Explaining the prophetic metaphor of a lion who kills his cubs ( Na. 2.13 ), the pesher equates the lion with a person dubbed the “Lion of Wrath,”...

Names and Naming

Names and Naming   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...the correct nickname of that person. The names of non-Jewish rulers are also recorded, including those of Roman emperors and consuls used in the Babatha archive and elsewhere for dating purposes. Pesher Nahum (4Q169) documents the names of two Seleucid kings, Antiochus and Demetrius , and in one of the Babatha documents the Nabatean king Rabel is mentioned (5/6Ḥev 3). [See also Herodium ; Inscriptions ; Masada, article on Written Material ; and Murabb῾at, Wadi, article on Written Material .] Bibliography Allegro, John M. , ed. Qumran Cave 4 ....

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