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Cold War

Subject: History

The antagonism between the USA and USSR lasting from the late 1940s until the late 1980s, ‘cold’ because it was waged through diplomatic and ideological means rather than force. Britain ...

Cold War

Cold War   Reference library

Norman Davies

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

... War . Although the term was not generally used until the 1950s, historians of the Cold War have traced its origins to the strains of the Grand Alliance from 1941 onwards. Both Churchill and Roosevelt agreed that the western powers must sink their differences with Stalin for the duration of the war against Germany: and western propaganda went to great lengths to conceal the crimes of their Soviet ally. Stalin's contribution to the Allied war effort was so immense that he could flout the Atlantic Charter almost at will, and could gain acceptance of the...

cold war

cold war   Reference library

The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

... war 1 a state of international tension wherein political, economic, technological, sociological, psychological, paramilitary, and military measures short of overt armed conflict involving regular military forces are employed to achieve national objectives. 2 ( the Cold War ) the state of political hostility that existed between the Soviet bloc countries and the U.S.-led Western powers from 1945 to 1990...

Cold War

Cold War   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...bad job, but the floodgates burst and the fall of the Berlin wall in 1989 is regarded as the end of the Cold War. The Warsaw Pact and the USSR broke up, leaving the successor state Russia to thrash about in search of a new purpose, and a triumphant NATO to develop interventionist policies it would never have dared to pursue previously. This has confirmed fears of ‘encirclement’ in Russia and it is not unimaginable that this could evolve into a new Cold War. Christopher...

second Cold War

second Cold War   Reference library

The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

...Cold War the period from the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979 to the Reykjavik summit in 1986 , during which time President Ronald Reagan increased military spending and actively sought U.S. dominance of the Soviet...

Cold War (1945–91)

Cold War (1945–91)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...the Grand Alliance and brought about the Cold War. [See also Russia, U.S. Military Involvement in, 1917–20 ; Russia, U.S. Military Involvement in, 1921–95. ] John Lewis Gaddis , The United States and the Origins of the Cold War, 1941–1947 , 1972. Daniel Yergin , Shattered Peace: The Origins of the Cold War and the National Security State , 1977. Thomas Paterson , On Every Front: The Making of the Cold War , 1979. Fraser Harbutt , The Iron Curtain: Churchill, American and the Origins of the Cold War , 1986. Michael Hogan , The Marshall Plan ,...

The End of Bipolarism and the Post–Cold War World

The End of Bipolarism and the Post–Cold War World   Reference library

Vidya Nadkarni

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,743 words

...and chronology of the Cold War are contested; and the contours of the post–Cold War era are variously delineated. Mindful of these controversies, this essay uses the formulations “Cold War era” and “post–Cold War era” as terms conventionally used to refer to historical periods rather than to imply uniformity in the nature of the US–Soviet relationship during the first period, or the character of the US relationship with other major powers since that time. The way in which the Cold War ended had important consequences for the post–Cold War world. The unilateral...

second Cold War

second Cold War  

The period from the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979 to the Reykjavik summit in 1986, during which time President Ronald Reagan increased military spending and actively sought U.S. dominance of ...
Cripps, Sir (Richard) Stafford

Cripps, Sir (Richard) Stafford (1889–1952)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

... before returning to become Lord Privy Seal and a member of the war cabinet. During 1942 , in which he headed a mission to India to negotiate that country's post-war independence, Cripps began to have doubts about the higher direction of the war. His proposal to form a war planning directorate was really a criticism of Churchill, who later called the proposed body ‘a disembodied Brains Trust’. He would have nothing to do with it; Cripps resigned, and was replaced by Morrison . Cripps's cold manner, dogmatic socialism, and austere disposition did not endear...

Dachau

Dachau   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...von Schuschnigg , as well as prominent Germans such as Halder , Schacht , and Niemöller . In November 1945 a war crimes trial of the commandant, 40 guards, and one doctor, was held in the camp, and those responsible for the Malmédy massacre were also tried there. About 500 medical experiments were carried out on inmates in 1941 and 1942 . They included malaria trials and experiments on the reaction of a person being immersed in cold water for long...

consequences of the war

consequences of the war   Reference library

Peter Calvocoressi

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...the right to make war except in very restricted (but loosely defined) circumstances. The Charter transferred the right to make war from the state to the international association of states, a step or stride which, while symptomatic of the emotions induced by war, proved to be at least premature—partly because the Cold War turned the UN into a forum for international dispute rather than conciliation, and partly because opinion at large was unprepared for so drastic an abrogation of the exercise of sovereignty. If the Second World War promoted the creation...

Hollywood

Hollywood   Reference library

Clayton R. Koppes

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...reverently portrayed Stalin as an ominiscient world statesman, and even endorsed the discredited Kremlin line that the massive purges of the 1930s had been necessary to root out fifth columnists . Controversial politics and dull entertainment, Mission to Moscow became a Cold War embarrassment. China and the UK were easier to bend to propaganda needs, although the results often proved misleading. Allies became Americans with quaint customs and mildly different looks. Representations of China followed Hollywood's well-worn formula of warm-hearted,...

Far East war crimes trials

Far East war crimes trials   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...of the post-war trials clearly merges with the early history of the Cold War . Stephen Large Hosoya, C. , Andō, N. , Ōnuma, Y. , and Minear, R. H. (eds.), The Tokyo War Crimes Trial: An International Symposium (New York and Tokyo, 1986). Minear, R. H. , Victors' Justice: The Tokyo War Crimes Trial (Princeton, 1971). Pritchard, R. J. , and Zaide, S. M. (eds.), The Tokyo War Crimes Trial: The Complete Transcripts of the Proceedings of the International Military Tribunal for the Far East , 22 vols. (New York, 1981). Totani Yuma , Tokyo War Crimes...

Lend-Lease

Lend-Lease   Reference library

Warren Kimball

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
3,423 words
Illustration(s):
2

...nothing as one or another Cold War consideration prevented a settlement. Finally, in June 1990 , in the glow of glasnost and with the USSR eager to qualify for US credits (still illegal under the Johnson Debt-Default Act until the USSR paid its Second World War ‘debts’), a repayment agreement was reached. At the same time, Soviet historians began to revise their earlier dismissal of the significance of Lend-Lease for the Soviet war effort. Once the tide of war had changed and attention began to focus on the shape of the post-war world, some in the USA began...

loot

loot   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...After the war most of the art treasures were tracked down by two Allied units: SHAEF 's Monuments, Fine Arts and Archives teams and the Office of Strategic Services Art Looting Investigation Unit. Much of the loot was found stored in salt mines at Alt Aussee and Grasleben, or in castles in Bavaria and Austria. Several hundred items, including paintings by Frans Hals, have never been claimed and works by Canaletto , Cézanne , Dürer , Renoir , and Vermeer , to name but a few, have never been recovered. In the following decades the Cold War hampered...

Göring, Reichsmarschall Hermann

Göring, Reichsmarschall Hermann (1893–1946)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

..., or to retaliate effectively. Perhaps more importantly he made serious errors of judgement—he was adamant, for example, that the entrance of the USA into the war would have little effect—and his incompetent handling of the country's war economy steadily isolated him from the centre of power and more and more alienated those who had to implement his directives. His energy, so unflagging before the war, came only in sporadic bursts, and he took increasing refuge in his narcotic addiction, in the fantasy world of his various luxurious homes, or in travelling...

fascism

fascism   Reference library

Norman Davies

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...powers did not display any great degree of common ‘fascist’ purpose during the war. Franco , the Caudillo of Spain, remained coldly aloof from Nazi designs throughout the war. He rebuffed Hitler outright at their one and only meeting at Hendaye in 1940 ; and Spanish assistance to Germany was limited ( see Blue Division and Spanish Legion ). In Portugal, Salazar followed Franco's lead. Mussolini was less than enthusiastic about Nazi activities in the first stage of the war. Later on, the Germans deeply resented the need to rescue the Italian fascists...

Canada

Canada   Reference library

J. L. Granatstein

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...The Canadian government insisted on paying full value for every American base and fixed installation in Canada at the end of the war, an all-too-obvious effort to eliminate every vestige of an American claim on Canada. None the less, the military links forged during the war remained and they were restored and refurbished when the Cold War began. Politically, the relations between the two countries also strengthened during the war. The friendship between King and Roosevelt grew, and the American government, while not according Canada a place at the Allied...

land power

land power   Reference library

Charles Messenger

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...before ground troops set foot on its mainland. The Second World War was unique, as regards land warfare, in the variety of the terrain and climate in which it was waged. Mountain, jungle, and desert, intense heat and extreme cold all required specialist skills and these were often employed as much in a battle with the elements as against the other side. At times, especially in the North African desert and on the Russian steppes, armour was able to operate in the way that the pre-war theorists had envisaged, striking swiftly. Yet in other theatres and...

Grand Alliance

Grand Alliance   Reference library

Michael Howard

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...bomb was dropped on Hiroshima . Two days later the USSR declared war on Japan. On 14 August Japan accepted the Allied demand for unconditional surrender . The Potsdam conference was terminal not only for the war but also for the Grand Alliance. Roosevelt was dead, Churchill was voted out of office while the conference was actually in progress, and Stalin had already begun the process of insulating the USSR and its conquests from Western influence that would lead directly to the Cold War . The USA terminated Lend-Lease to the UK, as to all its other...

Leningrad, siege of

Leningrad, siege of   Reference library

Earl Ziemke

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
1,617 words
Illustration(s):
2

...northwards, and on 18 December, Hitler had to allow Leeb to withdraw his troops to the River Volkhov and the line of the ‘bottleneck’. Winter came early that year, and was exceptionally cold. Leningrad , always entirely dependent on outside sources for food, coal, and oil, had suffered from breakdowns in the distribution system before, most recently during the 1939–40 war with Finland, but never on the scale it was about to experience. Although the city had been in acute danger after mid-July, nothing had been done about evacuating the people or industrial...

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