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Cold War

Subject: History

The antagonism between the USA and USSR lasting from the late 1940s until the late 1980s, ‘cold’ because it was waged through diplomatic and ideological means rather than force. Britain ...

Race, Class, and Ethnicity

Race, Class, and Ethnicity   Reference library

Herbert Robinson Marbury, Denise Eileen McCoskey, Vassiliki Panoussi, Lynne St. Clair Darden, James K. Aitken, and Gay L. Byron

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
24,382 words

...the Persian wars. While Airs, Waters, Places begins with a discussion of how certain factors like wind and water influence health, it takes a notably “ethnographic” turn in its second part as it outlines what it takes to be the fundamental differences between the peoples of Asia and Europe, linking each to their respective climates. In addition to other narrative strategies, Airs, Waters, Places at times seems to draw on a contrast that pervaded ancient medicine, namely, that of the “hot” and “dry” Libyans in the extreme south versus the “cold” and “wet”...

Masculinity and Femininity

Masculinity and Femininity   Reference library

Susan E. Haddox, Annette Weissenrieder, Marguerite Johnson, Robert Seesengood, and L. Stephanie Cobb

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
19,158 words

...generates a male body. Therefore hot, cold, dry, and wet are seen not as physical characteristics but rather as essential characteristics. Diet can also influence the sex of the child. Differences in sex result in differing processes of development within and outside the womb. Female offspring develop more slowly in the womb than male offspring. Outside of the womb, the woman’s weaker physiology causes her to age more quickly. The human soul consists of water and fire and, therefore, of the four qualities of warm, cold, moist, and dry ( De victu 25) and the...

Imagery, Gendered

Imagery, Gendered   Reference library

Elizabeth W. Goldstein, Ken Stone, Julia M. O’Brien, Carole R. Fontaine, Greg Carey, Michal Beth Dinkler, and Susan Grove Eastman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
26,610 words

...“the end of the ages has come” ( 1 Cor 10:11 ), and that therefore those who are in Christ are enrolled in God’s apocalyptic war against the powers of sin and death ( 1 Thess 5:8 ; Rom 13:11–12 ; cf. Eph 5:11 ). Both women as well as men are enrolled in this war, thereby attributing culturally “masculine” characteristics to women. In 2 Corinthians 10:3–6 , however, Paul writes. “For though we walk in the flesh we do not wage war according to the flesh. For our weapons [ hopla ] are not fleshly, but have power through God to destroy fortresses. We...

Male-Female Sexuality

Male-Female Sexuality   Reference library

Rhiannon Graybill, Giulia Sissa, Bradford A. Kirkegaard, Yii-Jan Lin, Tirzah Meacham, and Kathy L. Gaca

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
24,472 words

...Greek culture in all of its forms was widespread and the vast wealth that Cato had feared was a common feature of Roman aristocracy. Early empire. The early empire followed a period of rapid social change and widespread civil war. Augustus attempted to create a new foundation looking back to an idealized past. The long period of civil war was blamed on the arrogance of powerful men and typified by the immorality of the elite. Augustus placed new emphasis on “family values” with accompanying piety to the gods (the Ara Pacis provides one visual representation of...

Economics

Economics   Reference library

Anne Goddeeris, Cynthia Shafer-Elliott, Melissa Mueller, Matthew J. Perry, Neil Elliott, Carrie Elaine Duncan, and Agnes Choi

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
26,716 words

...framing, the content of the dialogue is markedly fictional—some would even say “utopian.” Men and women, according to Ischomachus, are suited by nature to their social roles (7.23–24), men naturally gravitating to the outdoors, where their bodies are better equipped for “enduring cold and heat, journeys and campaigns,” while women, less capable of such endurance, have had meted out to them “a larger portion of affection for newborns” (trans. Xenophon IV, 2013 ). She enjoys a share of “memory” ( mnēmē ) and attention ( epimeleia ) equal to her husband’s as...

Sexual Transgression

Sexual Transgression   Reference library

Diana M. Swancutt, Hilary Lipka, Rosanna S. Omitowoju, Heather Vincent, Benjamin H. Dunning, Laliv Clenman, and Taylor G. Petrey

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
30,174 words

...of human physiology. Ancient medical writers such as Galen ( 129–ca. 199 c.e. ) conceived of bodily health in terms of balance and equilibrium. In male bodies, this balance skewed in the direction of dryness, solidity, and vital heat, while in female bodies moisture, coldness, and permeability predominated. But regardless, because many medical writers believed that both male and female bodies produced seminal fluid that could be discharged—thereby changing the balance of the body—they saw the need for limiting and regulating sexual activity....

Third World

Third World   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
82 words

...World By analogy with the ‘third estate’ in the French Revolution, a group of states independent of the two main camps in the Cold War. The term was originally used in the late 1940s to denote a potentially neutral bloc in Europe, but from the early 1960s referred to countries of the developing world, as distinct from the ‘first’ (developed) capitalist and ‘second’ (communist) worlds. http://www.twnside.org.sg/ The Third World Network: an information and pressure group providing news on trade and...

New Left

New Left   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
121 words

...Left The label commonly applied to humanist dissidents from communist parties and to followers of Western Marxism during the period of the Cold War. The contrast is with the Old Left—that is, pro-Soviet communism. It later came to include revivals of Trotskyism and anarchism , and such Marxisms as Maoism . The New Left developed in the late 1950s as a self-conscious Marxist and radical intelligentsia, particularly in the United States and Britain, which was critical of capitalism and state socialism of the Soviet model in equal measure. It sponsored...

military-industrial complex

military-industrial complex   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
301 words

...and military-political objectives during the period of the Cold War. A number of sociological studies of this phenomenon were undertaken, the best-known of which is probably C. Wright Mills's The Power Elite (1956) , in which he argued that the homogeneous governing clique in post-war America represented an alliance of economic, military, and political power, and (contrary to the arguments of pluralists ) had established the USA as simultaneously a ‘private corporation economy’ and a ‘permanent war economy’ within which ‘virtually all political and economic...

military and militarism

military and militarism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
674 words

...the military as a substantive area of interest, but (more importantly) it is hard to see what, if anything, is specifically sociological about militarism and war. The threat of global annihilation, implicit in the Cold War antics of the superpowers, would seem to be a subject of rather more than merely sociological interest. In any case, Kurt Lang's Military Institutions and the Sociology of War (1972) offers an early review of relevant literature, and an annotated bibliography of more than 1300 items on organized violence. These suggest that...

totalitarian

totalitarian   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
444 words

...Italian fascists under Mussolini and with the philosopher Giovanni Gentile. Meaning ‘comprehensive, all-embracing, pervasive, the total state’, the label was applied to a variety of empires and orders of rule, and in general to rightist regimes; that is, until the period of the Cold War, when it gained renewed currency. Typically, it combines a syndrome of attributes that can be objectively assessed with a number of emotive connotations which are less open to investigation, as for example when it is equated with terms such as ‘evil empire’. The political...

development, sociology of

development, sociology of   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
445 words

...about at the economic level by the operations of the market and foreign investment; at the social level by the adoption of appropriate western institutions, values, and behaviours; and at the political level by the implementation of parliamentary democracy . A product of the Cold War, and motivated by the concern to challenge socialist ideas in the post-colonial world, modernization theory was criticized for its optimism, over-simplification, and ethnocentrism . It was displaced in the late 1960s as the most popular sociological analysis of development by...

Maoism

Maoism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
266 words

...), his significance for sociology is limited by the impenetrability of much of his philosophical (as opposed to his political and strategic) writing—a weakness exemplified, for example, in his essays ‘On Practice’ and ‘On Contradiction’ ( 1937 ). At various times during the Cold War period, neo-Marxist sociologists turned to Maoist China in the hope of finding a socialist state that was less wedded to doctrinaire Marxism than was the Soviet Union, and as a result there are several excellent (though somewhat idealized) ethnographies of life in Maoist...

Asiatic mode of production

Asiatic mode of production   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
428 words

...and so made them prey to state domination. The subsequent status of the concept among Marxists and non-Marxists alike has varied with changes in the political climate. Between the two world wars, the idea was disavowed by Soviet-influenced Marxists, who probably saw it as an obstacle to the Soviet Union's political ambitions in and for the Far East. In the Cold War climate of the 1950s, Karl Wittfogel disinterred the concept in his Oriental Despotism (1957) , suggesting that the real reason for its unpopularity in the Soviet Union was the uncomfortable...

inequality

inequality   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
412 words

...mobility , will have to confront the growing problems of the underclass , of generational inequalities, and inequalities produced by the globalization of capitalism , all of which will be seen as part of the social consequences of the ‘peace dividend’. As societies in the post-Cold-War era come to be graded along the criteria of the political democratic audit, so also will the ‘quality of life’ scale be applied both internally and externally, and the extent and nature of inequality will be scrutinized. Currently, the existence of inequality, its causes and...

industrial society

industrial society   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
923 words

...societies alike would develop into something resembling the ideal pattern of mature pluralist industrialism described above. Critics of this theory have noted that the general features it ascribes to mature industrialism correspond very closely to the ideal picture which Cold War propaganda had painted in the United States. However, alternative and less blatantly ideological models of mature industrialism can be developed, by revising the assumptions made about the logic of the industrialization process. Students of Japanese society, for example, noted...

modernity

modernity   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
887 words

...conditions of modernity, and also the similar role played by the encroachment of the pressures of clock time into everyday consciousness. He also highlighted the relentless assailing of the senses and the disjointed, fragmentary nature of experience in modernity's cities, and the cold and blasé attitudes that developed as a corresponding means of subjective self-protection. In similar vein Parsons formalized the effects of modernity on forms of social interaction in his celebrated ‘pattern variables’. Interaction within modernity was said to be characterized...

Internet

Internet   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
964 words

...the price of goods, library holdings, commodity prices, sports news and gossip, eroticism, and various social media . It is increasingly used for selling goods through dedicated online stores and for viewing television and listening to radio. The Internet is a product of the Cold War. It was originally developed by the Government of the United States during the 1970s as a means of sharing information and protecting communications in the event of a nuclear attack. During the 1980s it developed quickly, first into an academic exchange network, then as a means...

espionage and sport

espionage and sport  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Sport and spies appear at first an unlikely pairing, but the incipient and then expansive internationalism of sport make it ideal for the apparently innocent global movement of selected individuals; ...
military and militarism

military and militarism  

Reference type:
Overview Page
It is conventional wisdom that sociologists have tended to neglect military concerns. In fact this is a somewhat misleading claim, since not only have numerous studies taken the military as a ...

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