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Overview

Cold War

Subject: History

The antagonism between the USA and USSR lasting from the late 1940s until the late 1980s, ‘cold’ because it was waged through diplomatic and ideological means rather than force. Britain ...

Social Work Profession

Social Work Profession   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...assistance for war-impacted communities. Veteran social workers like Bertha Reynolds , who worked for the Personal Service Department of the National Maritime Union, devoted themselves to war work even as she challenged the direction of the profession. New social workers were recruited to war-related social work services. Wars bring about psychological crises for service members whether they are called shell shock (World War I), battlefield neurosis (World War II), or posttraumatic stress disorder (Vietnam and Iraq wars). During World War II, the Army...

Social Policy

Social Policy   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...the environment (Gore, 2007 ). Foreign policy also has social impact. During the Cold War in the second half of the 20th century, social policy enforced family norms and supported growth of a strong workforce that would enable the United States to compete for international economic hegemony. In the early 21st century, in the wake of the terrorist attacks on the United States on September 11, 2001 , the expansion of homeland security and the controversial and inconclusive war in Iraq have consumed resources that might have been used to develop or expand...

Cultural Institutions and the Arts

Cultural Institutions and the Arts   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...school districts, parks and recreation departments, convention and visitor bureaus, chambers of commerce, and a host of social welfare agencies as demonstrating the utilitarian aspects of the arts in contemporary society (Yudice, 2005 ). Reminiscent of the use of culture in the cold war, art and culture have been posited as engines for economic development by major foundations, the European Union, World Bank, and the Inter-American Development Bank (Goldbard, 2006 ). The conflict between the expedient and intrinsic quality of culture is often represented by...

Multiculturalism

Multiculturalism   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...the 1930s and 1940s, a number of factors—including the Depression, the passage of the Social Security Act of 1935 , the advent of the Second World War, and the Cold War—led to a sense of national pride in the United States and reinforced the belief that people of color should “abandon” their distinct identities and attempt to assimilate to the White norm (Logan, 2003 ; Van Soest, 1995 ). In the post–World War II era, social work saw a renewed focus on psychotherapeutic approaches, as a growing number of middle- and upper-income clients were seeking therapy...

Income Security

Income Security   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Social sciences, Social Welfare and Social Services
Length:
5,271 words
Illustration(s):
6

...on Social, Political & Economic Inequalities , 5(4), 29–49. World Bank. (2006). World development indicators . Washington, DC: Author. Further Reading Cornia, G. A. (1997). Child poverty and deprivation in the industrialized countries from the end of world war II to the end of the cold war era. In G. A. Cornia & S. Danziger (Eds.), Child poverty and deprivation in the industrialized countries, 1945–1995 (pp. 25–63). Oxford, England: Clarendon Press. Martha N....

Mental Health

Mental Health   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...Studies , 7(3), 283–296. Cohen, S. , Frank, E. , Doyle, J. W. , Skoner, D. P. , Rabin, B. S. , & Gwaltney, J. M. (1998). Types of stressors that increase susceptibility to the common cold in healthy adults . Health Psychology , 17(3), 214–223. Cohen, S. , Tyrrell, D. A. , & Smith, A. P. (1991). Psychological stress and susceptibility to the common cold . New England Journal of Medicine , 325(9), 606–612. Dana, R. H. (2002). Mental health services for African Americans: A cultural/racial perspective . Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority...

Asian Americans

Asian Americans  

[This entry contains seven subentries: Overview; Practice Interventions; Chinese; Japanese, Koreans; South Asians; Southeast Asians.]The term Asian Americans encompasses the immigrants coming from ...

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