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Cold War

Subject: History

The antagonism between the USA and USSR lasting from the late 1940s until the late 1980s, ‘cold’ because it was waged through diplomatic and ideological means rather than force. Britain ...

Cold War

Cold War   Reference library

Fred Halliday

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,405 words

... War The term “Cold War” is used to describe the protracted conflict between the Soviet and Western worlds that, while falling short of “hot” war, nonetheless involved a comprehensive military, political, and ideological rivalry from the end of World War II through the early 1990 s. The phrase entered the modern political vocabulary after World War II, as a description, popularized by the columnist Walter Lippmann , of the conflict between the Soviet and Western blocs. It was initially used to describe a historical period—the Cold War—that began with the...

Cold War, the

Cold War, the   Reference library

Emily Abrams Ansari

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,530 words

... War, the . The Cold War was a political, ideological, and military conflict between Communist and Western nations that began around 1947 and ended with the dissolution of the USSR in 1991 . The USSR and the United States were the principal adversaries, both superpowers after World War II. Each funded many proxy wars during this period, but because of their nuclear capabilities never fought each other directly, thereby creating alternating periods of high tension and relative calm. The Cold War's only consistent feature was thus the ideological conflict...

Cold War (1945–1991)

Cold War (1945–1991)   Reference library

David F. Schmitz, Zachary Karabell, William H. Chafe, Jonathan Nashel, and David Milne

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...the Cold War . Updated ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005. Gardner, Lloyd . Spheres of Influence . Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 1993. Hanhimaki, Jussi , and Odd Arne Westad , eds. The Cold War: A History in Documents and Eyewitness Accounts . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. Harper, John Lamberton . The Cold War . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011. LaFeber, Walter . America, Russia, and the Cold War . 7th ed. New York: McGraw–Hill, 1993. Leffler, Melvyn . For the Soul of Mankind: The United States, the Soviet Union, and the Cold War . New...

Cold War and Africa

Cold War and Africa (1945–1989)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...of the Cold War The costs of African conflicts during the Cold War can be estimated in a variety of ways. Loss of lives, including those by war-related famines, is the most obvious. Between 1945 and 1989 , African wars related to the Cold War took the lives of about 5.5 million people, mostly civilians. More difficult to assess are economic, social, and cultural losses due to the overall devastation of the country. Civilian populations, especially farmers and other food producers, were often the primary victims. In many countries Cold War conflicts...

Cold War and Africa

Cold War and Africa  

Ideological and political confrontation between the United States and the Communist Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), which lasted from 1945–1989 and had major effects on African ...
National Security Council Document 68

National Security Council Document 68   Reference library

Anna Kasten Nelson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...remained uncertain until the Korean War began on 25 June 1950 . This seemed to substantiate NSC 68's pessimistic prognosis and its call for a total Cold War commitment. Together, the Korean War and NSC 68 marked a crucial turning point in the Cold War and in U.S. military spending. When the national security budget soared from $13.5 billion in 1950 to $50 billion in 1952 , the modern defense budget was born. [ See also Acheson, Dean ; Anti-Communism ; Cold War ; Containment ; Defense, U.S. Department of ; Korean War (1950–1953) ; National Security ;...

United States Information Agency

United States Information Agency   Reference library

Laura A. Belmonte

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...cultural exchanges. With the end of the Cold War, the USIA cut staff and discontinued several publications. The State Department absorbed its functions after Clinton terminated the agency in 1999 . [ See also Carter, Jimmy ; Clinton, Bill ; Cold War (1945–1991) ; Eisenhower, Dwight D. ; Fulbright, William ; Public Diplomacy ; Reagan, Ronald ; State, U.S. Department of ; Truman, Harry S. ; Voice of America ; and War Propaganda and Popular Culture, American .] Bibliography Cull, Nicholas J. The Cold War and the United States Information Agency:...

Kennan, George F.

Kennan, George F. (1904–2005)   Reference library

Wilson D. Miscamble

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...of Germany and the withdrawal of American troops from Europe. Later, he opposed U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War, offered constructively critical support to the Richard M. Nixon–Henry Kissinger policy of détente, and passionately advocated nuclear arms–control measures. With the end of the Cold War, Kennan continued to emphasize the limits of American power and the need for restraint in its exercise. [ See also Acheson, Dean ; Cold War (1945–1991) ; Containment ; Détente ; Diplomacy, Theories of ; Foreign Policy ; Kissinger, Henry ; Marshall...

Voice of America

Voice of America   Reference library

Laura A. Belmonte

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...to end its Chinese service. [ See also Anti-Communism ; Army–McCarthy Hearings ; Clinton, Bill ; Cold War (1945–1991) ; Eisenhower, Dwight D. ; Public Diplomacy ; Public Opinion, Influence of, on U.S. Diplomacy ; United States Information Agency ; Vietnam War (1960–1975) ; War Propaganda and Popular Culture, American ; and World War II (1939–1945) .] Bibliography Belmonte, Laura A. Selling the American Way: U.S. Propaganda and the Cold War . Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2008. Bollinger, Lee C. Uninhibited, Robust, and...

Kirkpatrick, Jeane

Kirkpatrick, Jeane (1926–2006)   Reference library

Nicholas Kitchen

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...allowed neoconservatives to rhetorically emphasize standing up to “totalitarianism” in the context of the Cold War, the distinction itself was intellectually problematic, generating inconsistent definitions and applications. Moreover, the collapse of the Soviet system with the ending of the Cold War appeared to disprove the notion that totalitarian states were more stable than authoritarian ones. [ See also Anti-Communism ; Cold War (1945–1991) ; Grand Strategy ; Neoconservatism ; Reagan, Ronald ; Republican Party ; and United Nations, U.S....

Acheson, Dean

Acheson, Dean   Reference library

Wilson D. Miscamble

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...his hard stance four years later, when he abruptly urged U.S. disengagement from the Vietnam War. His aptly titled memoir Present at the Creation won the Pulitzer Prize in 1970 . [ See also Anti-Communism ; Bretton Woods Conference ; Cold War (1945–1991) ; Containment ; Democratic Party ; Eisenhower, Dwight D. ; Foreign Policy ; International Monetary Fund ; Interventionism ; Johnson, Lyndon B. ; Kennedy, John F. ; Kissinger, Henry ; Korean War (1950–1953) ; Marshall Plan ; McNamara, Robert S. ; National Security Council ; National...

Trading with the Enemy Act

Trading with the Enemy Act   Reference library

Thomas W. Zeiler

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...contests including World War II, the Cold War, and the Persian Gulf War, when the law provided the legal justification for consumer controls, export restrictions, and economic sanctions against designated enemies. The National Emergencies Act of 1977 , a post-Watergate effort to curb executive power, terminated all additions to the act since 1933 and provided for congressional oversight of the measure in the future. Emergencies were more precisely defined to limit the law's scope in domestic policy and diplomacy. [ See also Cold War (1945–1991) ; ...

Leahy, William D.

Leahy, William D. (1875–1959)   Reference library

Anne Sharp Wells

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

..., Leahy became an integral part of the Truman administration. An early and avid cold warrior, Leahy worked with Truman to counter Soviet influence worldwide. From 1942 to 1949 , Leahy participated in the highest levels of decision making, but he kept the presidents’ confidences so well that his own role is difficult to measure. Unquestionably, however, he played a vital role in the development of U.S. strategic policy during World War II and the early Cold War. [ See also Cold War (1945–1991) ; Defense, U.S. Department of ; Navy, U.S. ; Presidential...

Strategic Defense Initiative

Strategic Defense Initiative   Reference library

Edward Linenthal

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...defense system. [ See also Clinton, Bill ; Cold War (1945–1991) ; Nuclear Weapons and Strategy ; Reagan, Ronald ; and World War II (1939–1945) .] Bibliography Broad, William I. Teller's War: The Top-Secret Story behind the Star Wars Deception . New York: Simon and Schuster, 1992. FitzGerald, Frances . Way Out There in the Blue: Reagan, Star Wars and the End of the Cold War . New York: Simon and Schuster, 2000. Mann, James . The Rebellion of Ronald Reagan: A History of the End of the Cold War . New York: Viking Press, 2009. Reis, Edward . The...

Collective Security

Collective Security   Reference library

Gary B. Ostrower and Timothy J. Lynch

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...the scope of the action, again clouding the substantive contribution of collective security beyond its merely legal application. [ See also Cold War (1945–1991) ; Human Rights, International ; Internationalism ; Iraq Wars (1990–2010 ; Isolationism ; Korean War (1950–1953) ; League of Nations ; North Atlantic Treaty Organization ; United Nations, U.S. Relationship with the ; Wilson, Woodrow ; and World War I (1914–1918) .] Bibliography Armstrong, David , Lorna Lloyd, and John Redmond. From Versailles to Maastricht: International Organization in...

Marshall, George C.

Marshall, George C. (1880–1959)   Reference library

Timothy J. Lynch

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...forces. When General Douglas MacArthur campaigned to push the war into China, Marshall testified that a wider war in Asia would expose Western Europe to a possible attack, leading to MacArthur's removal from office. Marshall is considered the organizer of Allied victory in World War II, the architect of key U.S. Cold War policies, one of the foremost defenders of the principle of civilian control of the military, a key definer of the military's proper role in a democratic society, and a model of personal integrity and selfless public service. He was twice named...

Atomic Energy Commission

Atomic Energy Commission   Reference library

J. Samuel Walker

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Lilienthal ( 1899–1981 ), a former director of the Tennessee Valley Authority, became its first chairman. As the Cold War progressed, the agency focused its resources on weapons, expanding the U.S. stockpile and, after January 1950 , undertaking a crash program to build a hydrogen bomb. The agency's military emphasis proved a source of frustration and disappointment for Lilienthal, whose interests lay in atomic energy's nonmilitary uses. Cold War tensions and the still-rudimentary state of the technology prevented major strides in civilian applications....

Political Warfare

Political Warfare   Reference library

Kaeten Mistry

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...of World War II. Through agencies such as the Office of Strategic Services and the Office of War Information, along with various units within the military services, the United States methodically embraced covert means and propaganda in defeating the Axis powers. Although the exact term was used only by the British—who established the Political Warfare Executive—the United States emerged as political warfare's chief exponent. This experience proved formative for the ensuing Cold War conflict with the Soviet Union. Use in the Cold War.  With a blurring...

Rosenberg Case

Rosenberg Case   Reference library

Richard Gid Powers

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...crimes were real indeed, millions still remember their executions as a vindictive act of Cold War justice. [ See also Anti-Communism ; Army, U.S. ; Cold War (1945–1991) ; Korean War (1950–1953) ; Manhattan Project ; and World War II (1939–1945) .] Bibliography Haynes, John Earl , and Harvey Klehr . Venona: Decoding Soviet Intelligence in America . New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1999. Lamphere, Robert J. , and Tom Schachtman . The FBI–KGB Wars: A Special Agent's Story . New York: Random House, 1986. Radosh, Ronald , and Joyce Milton ....

Nitze, Paul H.

Nitze, Paul H. (1907–2004)   Reference library

Steven L. Rearden

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...of ; Cold War (1945–1991) ; Containment ; Cuban Missile Crisis ; Foreign Policy ; Kennan, George F. ; Marshall Plan ; National Security ; National Security Act of 1947 ; National Security Council Document 68 ; Nuclear Weapons and Strategy ; Reagan, Ronald ; State, U.S. Department of ; Strategy ; Truman, Harry S. ; Vietnam War (1960–1975) ; and World War II (1939–1945) .] Bibliography Cardwell, Curt . NSC 68 and the Political Economy of the Early Cold War . New York: Cambridge University Press, 2011. Carroll, James . House of War: The...

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