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Cold War

Subject: History

The antagonism between the USA and USSR lasting from the late 1940s until the late 1980s, ‘cold’ because it was waged through diplomatic and ideological means rather than force. Britain ...

Cold War

Cold War   Reference library

Fred Halliday

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,405 words

... War The term “Cold War” is used to describe the protracted conflict between the Soviet and Western worlds that, while falling short of “hot” war, nonetheless involved a comprehensive military, political, and ideological rivalry from the end of World War II through the early 1990 s. The phrase entered the modern political vocabulary after World War II, as a description, popularized by the columnist Walter Lippmann , of the conflict between the Soviet and Western blocs. It was initially used to describe a historical period—the Cold War—that began with the...

Cold War

Cold War   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,388 words

... War . The term “Cold War” is used to describe the protracted conflict between the Soviet and Western worlds that, while falling short of “hot” war, nonetheless involved a comprehensive military, political, and ideological rivalry from the end of World War II to the early 1990s. It entered modern political vocabulary after World War II, as a description, popularized by the columnist Walter Lippmann , of the conflict between the Soviet and Western blocs. It was initially used to describe a historical period—the Cold War—that began with the breakdown of the...

Cold War

Cold War   Quick reference

Peter Byrd

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,258 words

...communism and to expand American power throughout Europe, the Middle East, and the Far East. Some writers in this category thus trace the Cold War back to American opposition to the 1917 Russian Revolution. Of course, many accounts weave together two or even all three of these broad categories. In the 1980s there was a short‐lived but intensive reawakening of the Cold War, sometimes called the New Cold War. Détente petered out in the late 1970s, arms control faltered, and in December 1979 the Soviet Union occupied Afghanistan . From 1980 onwards...

Cold War

Cold War   Reference library

Fred Halliday

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,412 words

... War The term “Cold War” is used to describe the protracted conflict between the Soviet and Western worlds that, while falling short of “hot” war, nonetheless involved a comprehensive military, political, and ideological rivalry from the end of World War II to the early 1990s. It entered modern political vocabulary after World War II, as a description, popularized by the columnist Walter Lippmann, of the conflict between the Soviet and Western blocs. It was initially used to describe a historical period—the Cold War—that began with the breakdown of the...

Cold War

Cold War   Reference library

Oxford Companion to Australian Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,487 words

...Foreign Policy (3rd edn) Firth, Stewart (2005), Australia in International Politics: An Introduction to Australian Foreign Policy Lewis Gaddis, John (2005), The Cold War: A New History Love, Peter (2001), ‘Australia's Cold War’, in Peter Love and Paul Strangio (eds), Arguing the Cold War Lowe, David (1999), Menzies and the ‘Great World Struggle’: Australia's Cold War,...

The End of Bipolarism and the Post–Cold War World

The End of Bipolarism and the Post–Cold War World   Reference library

Vidya Nadkarni

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,743 words

...and chronology of the Cold War are contested; and the contours of the post–Cold War era are variously delineated. Mindful of these controversies, this essay uses the formulations “Cold War era” and “post–Cold War era” as terms conventionally used to refer to historical periods rather than to imply uniformity in the nature of the US–Soviet relationship during the first period, or the character of the US relationship with other major powers since that time. The way in which the Cold War ended had important consequences for the post–Cold War world. The unilateral...

third wave of democratization, the

third wave of democratization, the   Quick reference

A Dictionary of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...the surge of transitions from authoritarian rule to democracy that occurred in the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s, beginning with the Carnation Revolution in Portugal in 1974 . In the African context, the third wave is understood to have started in 1989 , following the end of the Cold War, the independence of Namibia, and the unbanning of the African National Congress ( ANC ) in South Africa in 1990 . Some of the first countries to hold elections were Benin, Cape Verde, and Zambia in 1991 . By the end of the third wave, all major sub-Saharan states were...

conditionality

conditionality   Quick reference

A Dictionary of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...Bank in order for states to secure economic and loans. In the 1980s and 1990s, the main economic conditions imposed by Western donors and international financial institutions were the core economic principles underpinning the Washington Consensus . Following the end of the Cold War, some donors—most notably the United States, the United Kingdom, and to a lesser extent other European nations—also began to place more overt political conditions on their support, for example demanding that authoritarian states reintroduce multiparty...

Ogaden War

Ogaden War (1977–8)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...of the main reasons for this was that the Somali government had underestimated the broader ramifications of its actions in the context of the Cold War. Disapproving of the invasion, the Soviet Union withdrew its support of President Siad Barre ’s government and instead threw its weight behind the Ethiopian government, which had adopted a Marxist-Leninist official ideology under the Derg regime. At the same time, the United States shifted its own allegiances, moving in the exact opposite direction. This process of international musical chairs put paid to Somali...

Mozambican Civil War

Mozambican Civil War (1977–94)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...FRELIMO maintained a tight grip over most urban centres. This situation began to change with the end of the Cold War and the decline of apartheid in South Africa in the late 1980s, which reduced the external funding and support available to sustain the conflict. In turn, the emergence of a more conducive context facilitated a fresh round of negotiations in 1990 that led to the signing of the Rome General Peace Accords in 1992 , which brought an end to a prolonged period of political violence that is estimated to have led to the death of around 1 million...

Angolan Civil War

Angolan Civil War (1975–2002)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...global Cold War. The conflict can be divided into three main phases— 1975–91 ; 1992–4 ; and 1998–2002 —that were separated by short periods of relative peace. Despite the signing of a peace accord in 1991 and the organization of multiparty elections under international tutelage the following year, a series of violent incidents led to a return to war before a presidential run-off could take place between President José Eduardo dos Santos and UNITA leader Jonas Savimbi . In the following year, UNITA gained control of 70 per cent of Angolan territory, but...

Atomic Energy Commission

Atomic Energy Commission   Reference library

J. Samuel Walker

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
430 words

... ( 1899 – 1981 ), a former director of the Tennessee Valley Authority, became its first chairman. As the Cold War progressed, the agency focused its resources on weapons, expanding the U.S. stockpile, and, after January 1950 , undertaking a crash program to build a hydrogen bomb. The agency’s military emphasis proved a source of frustration and disappointment for Lilienthal, whose interests lay in the nonmilitary uses of atomic energy. But Cold War tensions and the still-rudimentary state of the technology prevented major strides in civilian...

Congo Crisis

Congo Crisis   Quick reference

A Dictionary of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...of Katangan gendarmes in the presence of Belgian officers, most likely with the full knowledge of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. Today, the Congo Crisis is remembered as a classic example of the way in which foreign powers meddled in African politics during the Cold War without fully understanding the implications of their actions, often to the detriment of the...

Censorship

Censorship   Reference library

Francis G. Couvares and Paul S. Boyer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
1,323 words

...Like the Federalist Party in the 1790 s, subsequent leaders during the Civil War, the two world wars, and the Cold War would insist that the nation’s fate depended on the government’s capacity to censor its critics. Confronted with antiwar and pro-South agitation during the Civil War, President Abraham Lincoln suspended the writ of habeas corpus in 1863 and authorized the arrest of southern sympathizers, war opponents, and persons engaged in “any disloyal practice.” In World War I, under the 1917 Espionage Act and the 1918 Sedition Amendment, the ...

Civil Liberties

Civil Liberties   Reference library

Patrick M. Garry and Paul S. Boyer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
2,079 words

...citizens of one ancestry in a different category from others.” In Korematsu v. United States ( 1944 ), the Court upheld the evacuation of Japanese Americans, but added, in Endo v . United States ( 1944 ), that the War Relocation Authority should attempt to separate “loyal” internees from “disloyal” ones and release the former. Cold-War Era Retrenchment.  The early postwar era saw considerable retrenchment in the area of civil liberties. The conservative mood in the country brought a shift in political priorities from a concern for individual freedom to a...

Administrative State

Administrative State   Reference library

Williamjames Hull Hoffer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
2,652 words

...tax through the Internal Revenue Service. Although these programs failed to end the Great Depression, they vastly increased the scale and scope of the national administrative state. After World War II ended in 1945 , Republican majorities in Congress dismantled the Depression relief agencies, but the expansion of government bureaucracy continued. The Cold War provided the impetus to expand the national security apparatus of the United States, featuring a united Department of Defense, the Central Intelligence Agency, and the National Security Agency. The...

Budget, Federal

Budget, Federal   Reference library

Iwan Morgan

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
1,715 words

...validated Keynesianism in restoring full employment and strong economic growth. World War II’s fiscal legacy shaped postwar budgeting. The personal income tax’s transformation into a mass tax in 1943 provided ample revenue for outlay expansion. In FY 1960 expenditure and receipts each constituted 17.8 percent GDP compared with 9.8 percent and 6.8 percent, respectively, in FY 1940 . Spending composition now prioritized defense over domestic programs. With the Cold War necessitating a huge military establishment, national security averaged 56 percent of...

Anti-Communism

Anti-Communism   Reference library

Richard Gid Powers

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
722 words

...experience they brought to the movement. United only in their hatred of Communism, these individuals often warred as fiercely among themselves as against the common enemy. American anti-Communism exerted its greatest influence during the late 1940 s and early 1950 s, when it provided the moral and intellectual basis for the containment policies that underlay the Western alliance against the Soviet Union and other Communist regimes. During those Cold War years, anti-Communists created a widespread grassroots movement that mobilized millions of Americans in...

Assisted Suicide Policy

Assisted Suicide Policy   Reference library

Ian Dowbiggin

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
986 words

...of assisted suicide. To euthanasia supporters it was more important to empower physicians treating the chronically ill and dying than patients who might wish to put themselves out of their own pain and misery. A series of significant events and trends during the Cold War transformed assisted suicide into a contentious policy issue. More and more Americans were becoming aware that they stood to live longer than their ancestors because of improvements in public health and the introduction of life-sustaining medical technologies. Longer life...

Brown v. Board of Education

Brown v. Board of Education   Reference library

Anders Walker

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
1,038 words

...data to prove that the psychological development of African American youth was harmed by Jim Crow , engendering a sense of racial inferiority. Others joined, including President Truman ’s Justice Department, which declared the invalidation of segregation necessary to win the Cold War. This point emphasized the ugly contrast between America’s self-proclaimed ideals of democracy and the South’s repressive regime of disfranchisement and repression. Sympathetic to such claims, along with the NAACP’s social science evidence, Chief Justice Earl Warren worked...

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