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Cold War

Subject: History

The antagonism between the USA and USSR lasting from the late 1940s until the late 1980s, ‘cold’ because it was waged through diplomatic and ideological means rather than force. Britain ...

front

front   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...front. Different types of front are distinguished according to the nature of the air masses separated by the front, the direction of the front’s advance, and the stage of development. The term was first devised during World War I by the Norwegian school of meteorologists (headed by Professor V. Bjerknes ). See also anafront ; cold front ; katafront ; occluded front ; polar front ; warm front...

Fronts

Fronts   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
3,597 words
Illustration(s):
2

...or triple point, move apart with time. The cyclone reaches maturity with the occlusion stage and weakens thereafter. In the classical concept of the occluded front, if the air behind the cold front is colder and thus denser than the cold air ahead of the warm front, the cold front will undercut the warm front, forming a cold-type occlusion. If the reverse is true, the cold front, upon reaching the warm front, will ride up the warm frontal surface, forming a warm-type occlusion. Various attempts have been made to verify the existence and structure of occluded...

Bjerknes, Vilhelm F. K.

Bjerknes, Vilhelm F. K. (1862–1951)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...meteorology, based on concepts of fronts and air masses, marked a turning point in atmospheric science. Vilhelm and Jacob Bjerknes postulated that cyclones are often born along a front—the boundary between relatively warm and cold masses of air. A cold front is one advancing toward warm air; a warm front is one moving toward colder air. Frequently two air masses meet and interact, forming low-pressure centers called cyclones. The several stages of a cyclone—its birth, growth, and decay—can each last for 3 or 4 days. In the early twentieth century, this...

Warfare and Weather

Warfare and Weather   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,453 words
Illustration(s):
1

...with no hope of being delivered. The rasputiza , and especially the cold, caused a loss of momentum for the German offensive. On 6 December, the Battle for Moscow was abandoned by the Germans. This enabled the Soviet army to launch its first major counteroffensive of the war. In the continued fighting, the number of casualties caused by cold increased to such an extent that in the last days of December, the number of German troops lost through frostbite, and other consequences of cold, exceeded the number lost through enemy action. Bibliography Douglas, K....

Hare, F. Kenneth

Hare, F. Kenneth (1919–2002)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...a geography department that for several decades exerted a powerful influence on Canadian geography and climatology. The focus was on the Arctic and Subarctic, where the concerns of the Cold War called for great improvement in basic data collection and understanding. For example, until Hare and Margaret Montgomery proved otherwise in 1949 , it was believed that Hudson Bay did not freeze in winter. Research funding, much of it linked to military budgets, flowed to the McGill department. For several decades its graduate students operated a first-order weather...

Cyclones

Cyclones   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
14,580 words
Illustration(s):
7

...indicated that many cyclones were not warm at mid-levels as the thermal theory predicts, but cold. By the early 1900s, the stage was set for one of the most profound developments in meteorology—the polar front theory of cyclones (also called the Norwegian cyclone model). The polar front theory for midlatitude cyclones was developed at the Geophysical Institute in Bergen, Norway, headed by Vilhelm Bjerknes . In a series of landmark papers published just after World War I, Jacob Bjerknes , Halvor Solberg , and Tor Bergeron developed a model for cyclone...

History, Climate, and Weather

History, Climate, and Weather   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,492 words
Illustration(s):
2

...February 1917 , most of European Russia was covered by a snow layer 40 to 50 centimeters or more deep, causing the stranding of some 57,000 rail cars. With nearly 15 million men serving in the armed forces in World War I, there was a shortage of manpower to clear the thousands of kilometers of railroad. Additionally, there was the problem of the cold. On the coldest day of February 1917 , the average temperature was −24.3°C, and on the second coldest day, −22.7°C. Outside the cities, where the “heat island” effects did not operate, temperatures were much lower;...

Jet Stream

Jet Stream   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,012 words
Illustration(s):
2

...and in the wake of a cold front has a frontolytic effect, whereas low-tropospheric convergence ahead of the jet stream would have a frontogenetic effect. Thus, jet streams are a consequence as well as a cause of frontal processes in the atmosphere. It is moot to ask which comes first; instead, one should consider jet streams to be dynamically linked to baroclinic zones in rotating fluid systems through mutual feedback processes. [ See Fronts .] As schematically illustrated in Figure 1 , in the rear of a jet wind maximum, cold air sinks and warm air...

Meteorology

Meteorology   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...of warm and cold fronts—was undiscovered until the 1930s, although some aspiring weather forecasters had unwittingly alluded to these zones of relatively strong horizontal temperature gradients as early as the 1800s. Military strategy in World War I was largely restricted to the realm of trench warfare, and weather played a significant role in the movement and deployment of ground troops. In the immediate aftermath of the war, the Norwegian Jacob Bjerknes conceptualized a battle of cold and warm air masses near a boundary called a front. If cold air marched...

International Institute For Applied Systems Analysis

International Institute For Applied Systems Analysis   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...the Soviet bloc. The substantive focus would be systems analysis and modern management techniques, fields in which the United States led the world and where many believed great gains could be achieved through improving and disseminating American methods. Through the end of the cold war, IIASA maintained a broad research portfolio bringing scholars together for joint studies on demography, energy and natural resources, management, and applied mathematics. In 1991 , members negotiated a new Strategic Plan focused on environmental, technological, and economic...

Nuclear Winter

Nuclear Winter   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,449 words
Illustration(s):
2

...upper atmosphere. These include San Francisco as a result of the earthquake in 1906 , and cities bombed in World War II, including Tokyo, Dresden, Hamburg, Darmstadt, Hiroshima, and Nagasaki. • The seasonal cycle. In the winter, the climate is cooler, because the days are shorter and sunlight is less intense. Again, this helps us quantify the effects of reduction of solar radiation. • The diurnal cycle. At night the Sun sets and it gets cold at the surface. If the Sun did not rise tomorrow, we already have an intuitive feel for how much cooling would...

International Atomic Energy Agency

International Atomic Energy Agency   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...130 members. Eisenhower's motivation was to balance the extensive and growing military applications of nuclear energy with a peaceful applications program that would expand the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and, at the same time, present the United States in the intensifying cold war as the leader in its technological applications. It was assumed that the uranium needed to power nuclear reactors was in short supply (in the event quite wrong) so that providing an international mechanism to make uranium available for peaceful uses under controlled conditions...

Revelle, Roger

Revelle, Roger   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...19–20. Revelle, R. , et al. Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide. In Restoring the Quality of Our Environment: Report of the Environmental Pollution Panel, President's Science Advisory Committee , pp. 111–133. Washington, D.C.: The White House, 1965. Weart, S. R. Global Warming, Cold War, and the Evolution of Research Plans . Historical Studies in the Physical and Biological Sciences 27 (1997), 319–356. Deborah Cozort...

Popular Culture

Popular Culture   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...and Nagasaki. These local catastrophes were immediately and everywhere read as harbingers of a nuclear Armaggedon, of global change at the hands of man on a scale and of a completeness heretofore the exclusive province of the gods. As the Americans locked themselves into a cold-war struggle with the Soviet Union, they began to dig fallout shelters, practice air raid drills, and otherwise indulge the delusional fantasy of Civil Defense: that is, to construct a nationwide underground Ark. In coping with the imminence of catastrophic global change and “the...

Future Studies

Future Studies   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...planning methods utilize speculative, but carefully constructed, descriptions of future worlds. All three methodologies arose in the United States in the aftermath of World War II—a time of relatively stable geopolitics and industrial structures. This originating postwar context shaped the early development of the discipline and, later, contributed to its crisis. At the outset of the cold war in the early 1950s, the U.S. military created a number of units dedicated to forecasting future conditions in the Soviet Union. Faced with the prospect of huge defense...

Planetary Atmospheres

Planetary Atmospheres   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,023 words
Illustration(s):
1

...extreme seasonal temperature variations. In midwinter, the polar regions receive no sunlight and become so cold that the carbon dioxide that makes up most of the tenuous atmosphere condenses onto the surface as a dense frost. At the strongly heated summer pole, this frost evaporates back into the atmosphere. As a result, an important part of the Martian global circulation is the “condensation flow” from the warm summer pole to the cold winter pole. The second factor is the large dust storms that develop in some years near the spring pole of Mars. So...

Atmospheric Structure

Atmospheric Structure   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,163 words
Illustration(s):
1

...only around 0.33 percent of the mass of the atmosphere. At altitudes of about 10 kilometers the concentration of water vapor is only about 1 percent of that at the ground, and higher levels have much less. This occurs primarily because very little water vapor is needed to saturate cold air, and excess water will precipitate as rain or snow. Unlike water vapor and ozone, carbon dioxide is fairly well mixed in the air. Despite the low concentration of CO 2 (of 1 million molecules of air near the surface, only about 400 are CO 2 ), it is vital for photosynthesis...

South America

South America   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,757 words
Illustration(s):
1

...blow parallel to the coast, cold waters well up from the depths of the Pacific. When the westward trades diminish, the warm surface waters that have accumulated in the western Pacific flow toward this coast and an anomalously warm season with heavy rainfall ensues. This phenomenon, known in Spanish as El Niño (the child) because it occurs around Christmas, causes marked changes in marine productivity. El Niño occurs about once every 3 to 7 years in response to the interannual wind fluctuations termed the Southern Oscillation. The cold and dry phase complementary...

Thunderstorms

Thunderstorms   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,574 words
Illustration(s):
2

...between spring and fall, mentioned earlier, can be easily explained. During the spring, the upper atmosphere tends to be relatively cold, in part because the increasing solar heat input at the surface has not yet been transferred upward. Thunderstorms play a major role in that transfer process. Solar heating warms the low levels increasingly during the spring, so, because the upper atmosphere is still relatively cold, conditional instability is high. In addition, the strong weather systems of spring produce conditions very favorable for thunderstorms,...

North Pole

North Pole   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...that the saturation point is low and thus frequently exceeded; this results in frequent, often dense, fogs at almost any time of year. The density of the very cold air often stratifies these fogs and confines them to barely 25 meters above the surface (when a ship's bridge is in fog the crow's nest may be in bright sunlight). Sea fogs are another special feature of the Arctic Ocean, where very cold air meets a patch of open water in the pack ice (sea water begins to freeze at −1.8°C). Sometimes frost smoke may be seen ascending from water in still air owing...

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