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Cold War

Subject: History

The antagonism between the USA and USSR lasting from the late 1940s until the late 1980s, ‘cold’ because it was waged through diplomatic and ideological means rather than force. Britain ...

Wartime Economic Regulation

Wartime Economic Regulation   Reference library

Joseph A. McCartin

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management, Economics
Length:
3,088 words

...century. It validated the famous aphorism of the Progressive Era social critic Randolph Bourne, “War is the health of the state.” The level of wartime economic regulation reached its height during the two world wars, and for decades after World War II the Cold War buttressed a higher level of economic regulation than might otherwise have prevailed. War-spawned regulatory efforts diminished over time, however. By the time the United States waged war in Afghanistan and Iraq during the presidency of George W. Bush, not only were significant military...

World Federation of Trade Unions

World Federation of Trade Unions   Reference library

Victor G. Devinatz

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...the world working class movement.” With Socialists and Communists united in struggle and having defeated fascism in World War II, the world labor movement was unified for the first time in more than twenty years. Amid the rebuilding of the industrial economies destroyed during the war, hope remained high that international labor unity could be maintained and that the world could be transformed in labor's image. Until the onset of the Cold War split it, the WFTU was the largest and geographically the widest-ranging international labor organization that ever...

Fair Deal

Fair Deal   Reference library

Nicholas D. Bloom

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...political systems. Many unions preferred, and gained access to, private health and pension benefits through collective bargaining rather than through federal programs. Finally, civilian spending ultimately took a back seat to military and economic programs associated with the Cold War. The long-term legacy of the few implemented Fair Deal initiatives was mixed. The expansion of Social Security, for instance, helped raise the standard of living for many Americans. Successful desegregation of the military set the stage for federal intervention in civil rights....

United Electrical Workers

United Electrical Workers   Reference library

Michael Schiavone

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...War II, and at its peak the union claimed 750,000 members. The only unions that achieved growth comparable to the UE's during the war years were the United Auto Workers, which grew from 165,000 to 1 million members, and the United Steelworkers, whose membership increased threefold, to 700,000. Rival unions, businesses, and the U.S. government, however, alleged that many UE leaders were Communists or had links to the Communist Party. Ideological conflict had always raged within the UE between left-wing and right-wing factions. The beginning of the Cold War...

Salt of the Earth

Salt of the Earth   Reference library

Scott Henkel

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...[ See also Film and Labor and Labor and Anti-Communism . ] Bibliography Baker, Ellen R. On Strike and On Film: Mexican American Families and Blacklisted Filmmakers in Cold War America. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2007. Lorence, James J. The Suppression of “Salt of the Earth”: How Hollywood, Big Labor, and Politicians Blacklisted a Movie in Cold War America. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1999. Wilson, Michael , and Deborah Silverton Rosenfelt . Salt of the Earth: Screenplay and Commentary . Old Westbury, N.Y...

Bretton Woods Conference

Bretton Woods Conference   Reference library

Diane B. Kunz

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Stalin vetoed Soviet participation in the Bretton Woods organizations. Although operational arrangements of the Bretton Woods institutions evolved in the decades after 1944 , the agreements nonetheless provided the basic framework for the capitalist economic system during the Cold War and after. [ See also Capitalism ; Foreign Trade ; GATT and WTO ; International Monetary Fund ; Trade Policy, Federal ; and World Bank . ] Bibliography Gardner, Richard N. Sterling-Dollar Diplomacy: The Origins and the Prospects of Our International Economic Order...

Western Federation of Miners

Western Federation of Miners   Reference library

Katherine Scott Sturdevant

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... 15, no. 1 (1974): 36–43. Rodda, Jeanette . Go Ye and Study the Beehive: The Making of a Western Working Class . New York: Garland, 2000. Suggs, George G., Jr. Colorado's War on Militant Unionism: James H. Peabody and the Western Federation of Miners . Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1991. Weinberg, Carl R. “ Salt of the Earth : Labor, Film, and the Cold War.” OAH Magazine of History , October 2010. http://magazine.oah.org/issues/244/salt.html . Katherine Scott Sturdevant...

Reuther, Walter

Reuther, Walter (1907–1970)   Reference library

John Barnard

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Motors Department ( 1939–1946 ), Reuther became the union's vice president ( 1942–1946 ) and, in 1946 , its president (until 1970 ). Concurrently he headed the Congress of Industrial Organizations ( 1952–1955 ) and was vice president of the combined AFL-CIO ( 1955–1967 ). A Cold War leader of the anti-Communist left, he helped expel Communist-dominated unions from the CIO in 1949 . An eloquent speaker, Reuther was also a bold strike strategist and nimble negotiator. During his presidency the UAW won numerous benefits for its members, including cost-of-living...

Samuelson, Paul

Samuelson, Paul (1915–2009)   Reference library

Gerald Friedman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...shifts in demand or supply or limits on price or wage changes cause widespread unemployment. Samuelson saw no need to reconstruct economic theory; instead, he applied Keynes as a policy patch, a policy guide during unusual times but without any general significance. During the Cold War, Samuelson's neoclassical synthesis may have been the only way to bring Keynesian ideas into American higher education. Others found their more faithful renditions of Keynesian ideas rejected by publishers and college administrators concerned to maintain alumni donations....

Garment Industry

Garment Industry   Reference library

Daniel Katz

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...in 1976 the ACWA and the Textile Workers Union of America merged to form the Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers Union (ACTWU). Increasingly, the U.S. government was reluctant to protect the domestic garment trades from apparel-exporting countries that were allies in the Cold War. By the 1980s, competition from foreign imports drove down the costs of garments and wages, and Manhattan's Chinatown became a new haven for sweatshop production of women's garments. In 1982 , twenty thousand Chinese, mostly women workers, struck there and reestablished the...

Rational Choice Theory

Rational Choice Theory   Reference library

Richard McIntyre

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management, Economics
Length:
1,048 words

...In neoclassical microeconomics, this reasoning is applied relentlessly to all issues, and the approach has been spread to the other social sciences by works such as Gary Becker's An Economic Approach to Human Behavior ( 1978 ). Rational choice theory was promoted during the Cold War. Analysts at the RAND Corporation and elsewhere sought to develop an individualism that avoided the pitfalls of selfishness that Alexis de Tocqueville had exposed, as well as the expressive and thus nonrational forms of individualism celebrated by the New England...

Bridges, Harry

Bridges, Harry (1901–1990)   Reference library

Robert W. Cherny

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...John Haynes . “The Comintern's Open Secrets.” American Spectator (December 1992): 34–43. Summarizes evidence from the Comintern archives regarding the election of Bridges to the CP Central Committee. Kutler, Stanley I. The American Inquisition: Justice and Injustice in the Cold War . New York: Hill and Wang, 1982. Larrowe, Charles P. Harry Bridges: The Rise and Fall of Radical Labor in the United States . New York: Lawrence Hill, 1972. Robert W. Cherny...

General Motors Strike (1945)

General Motors Strike (1945)   Reference library

Ryan S. Pettengill

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...half of the twentieth century. [ See also Automotive Industry ; Flint General Motors Strike ; Industrial Relations ; Reuther, Walter ; Treaty of Detroit and Postwar Labor Accord ; and United Auto Workers .] Bibliography Halpern, Martin . UAW Politics in the Cold War Era . Albany: State University of New York Press, 1988. Keeran, Roger . The Communist Party and the Auto Workers Unions . Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1980. Lichtenstein, Nelson . The Most Dangerous Man in Detroit: Walter Reuther and the Fate of American Labor . New...

Technology

Technology   Reference library

Colleen A. Dunlavy

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management, Economics
Length:
4,604 words

...“military–industrial complex” whose emergence President Dwight D. Eisenhower had discerned in 1961 . During the Cold War—particularly in response to the Soviet atomic bomb ( 1949 ), the Korean War, and the Soviets’ launching of Sputnik I ( 1957 )—federal funds poured into education (National Defense Education Act, 1958 ) and into industrial research and development (R & D), on the model that had proved so productive during World War II. By 1965 , fully two thirds of American R & D was funded by the federal government. As total R & D spending more than...

Tariffs

Tariffs   Reference library

Paul P. Abrahams

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management, Economics
Length:
1,292 words

...transportation equipment. In the ensuing decade U.S. exports and imports doubled, pushing merchandise trade, as a share of the gross domestic product, to levels not seen since 1913 . Multilateral trade liberalization also enabled the United States to strengthen its anti-Soviet Cold War alliances and bolster its allies’ economic health at low political cost. Because the U.S. economy was the world's most prosperous and productive from 1945 through 1973 , the United States allowed many of its allies, including the member nations of the European Economic Union...

Globalization

Globalization   Reference library

Jason Kozlowski

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management, Economics
Length:
1,195 words

...in Europe, where the largest, most lucrative markets existed. Yet by the mid-1960s, as developing nations adopted export-related industrialization strategies, TNCs shifted capital and, later, jobs to Asia, Latin America, and parts of Africa. Cold War economic policies to rebuild war-ravaged industrial economies established the United States as the world's buyer of last resort for imported goods. However, particularly in Japan and Germany, state industrial planning, export strategies, and technological advances put these countries’ automobile...

Trade Policy, Federal

Trade Policy, Federal   Reference library

Judith Stein

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management, Economics
Length:
10,421 words

...in Europe were too grave for free trade. At war's end, industrial production was 40 percent of prewar levels in Belgium, France, and the Netherlands and was 20 percent in Germany and Italy. Mercantilism predominated, and the Americans did not complain. Europe and Japan used trade to resurrect and modernize their war-ravaged economies. High tariffs sheltered industry and agriculture so that domestic enterprise could flourish. Import quotas and exchange restrictions made the walls even higher. Then when the Cold War developed in 1946 and 1947 , American...

Women Workers

Women Workers   Reference library

Lara Vapnek

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management, Economics
Length:
4,867 words

...such as in welding that had formerly been reserved for men. When the war ended, however, employers laid women off or shifted them back to lower-paying jobs typed as female. African American women were typically the last hired and the first fired for jobs in war production, but they began to make a slow but steady climb out of domestic service after World War II. Suburbanization and the Cold War.  By 1946 , half of the 6 million women who had entered the paid workforce during the war had left. Suburbanization fed a revival of domesticity. Movies,...

Rust Belt and Deindustrialization

Rust Belt and Deindustrialization   Reference library

Jason C. Kozlowski

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...quarter in steel, hastening America's manufacturing decline. The term “Rust Belt” entered common usage by the mid-1980s. Popular characterizations of the increasingly deindustrialized, de-unionized, and depopulated Northeast and Midwest contrasted the warmer Sunbelt with the colder northern “Frostbelt” (though the diverse climates throughout the Great Lakes region make such characterizations problematic). As rising unemployment, poverty, pollution, and crime afflicted older manufacturing communities in the urban North, comparable conditions during the Great...

Shopping Centers and Malls

Shopping Centers and Malls   Reference library

Karal Ann Marling

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...civic center for American suburbia. Set like a jewel amid acres of free parking, Southdale offered the Minneapolis suburbs their closest approximation of a spiritual and physical core. Later in the 1950s, in Midtown Plaza in Rochester, New York, Gruen tried to revitalize a cold-weather inner city decimated by white flight with a vertical mall built over an underground parking ramp topped by an office tower. By then the lessons of Disneyland were clear to anyone planning a pedestrian environment: like the theme park, Midtown Plaza was brash, bright,...

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