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Cold War

Subject: History

The antagonism between the USA and USSR lasting from the late 1940s until the late 1980s, ‘cold’ because it was waged through diplomatic and ideological means rather than force. Britain ...

Muller, Hermann Joseph

Muller, Hermann Joseph   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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Current Version:
2005

...Auerbach , in her studies in the 1940s on nitrogen mustard and other alkylating agents, confirmed Muller's suspicion that chemicals would be good mutagens. Muller applied his knowledge of genetics to advocate radiation protection in industry, medicine, and the military. Cold war politics and Muller's earlier history as a Communist sympathizer made it difficult for him to convince professionals that radiation safety was more than political propaganda. No one disputed the dangers of high doses of radiation. At issue were smaller doses. Muller's chief...

Lamarckism

Lamarckism   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...practitioners would be repressed. Under the direction of Trofim Lysenko , Lamarckian ideas flourished and were applied to agriculture. The consequences were disastrous, and Western scientists saw the approach as at best methodologically unsound and at worst fraudulent. As the cold war intensified, Lamarckism, which had little experimental evidence to support it and no plausible mechanisms to explain it, became more and more suspect in the West. Its last stronghold in the 1940s was in bacteriology. The discovery that after a lengthy lag period, bacteria...

Race

Race   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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Current Version:
2005

...and even hair morphology. Human trunk and limb morphology does follow regularities observed in other species: in colder climates, bodies are less elongated and limbs are relatively shorter. The compact short-limbed morphologies in cold climates dissipate less heat. The arguments that visible traits have been shaped by adaptation to the environment are shaky and unconvincing. For example there are both very light people and very dark people in cold, cloudy regions (Sweden and Tasmania, respectively). A clear dismissal of this tradition of speculation is given...

Agriculture

Agriculture   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
6,017 words
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1

...) in the Levant. The earliest known villages probably were established during a cold period, which was followed by a long period of greater warmth. During this warm period, wild rice would have been able to colonize lakes and marshes of the lower and middle Yangtze. Sedentary communities appear to have developed at this time. Early agriculture communities, such as Pengtoushan, which appears to have been cultivating rice by 7,800 years ago, were established in the succeeding cold period. This period would have seen declines in wild grasses, similar to those in...

Heterozygote Advantage

Heterozygote Advantage   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
4,349 words
Illustration(s):
6

...warm days versus dark, chilly nights, or alternations of pure salt versus brackish water in a coastal marsh. An excellent empirical example of this reversal of fitnesses ( Vrijenhoek , 1996 ) is seen in the fitnesses of the fish Peociliopsis monacha between stresses imposed by cold and heat exacerbated by low oxygen (Figure 1). When two or more selective events are chained in this way and alternate homozygotes are favored during successive selective events, heterozygous advantage may accumulate (Mitton, 1997 ; Gillespie , 1991 ). Table 3. Heterozygous...

Neo-Darwinism

Neo-Darwinism   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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Current Version:
2005

...biology, and physiology, however, remained “unsynthesized.” In 1952 , Conrad Waddington , supported by Haldane, criticized the narrow focus on mathematical genetics. He later published his own views in The Strategy of the Genes ( 1957 ). In 1959 , at a Darwin celebration at Cold Spring Harbor, Mayr followed this up, pleading with those he called “bean-bag” geneticists to pay attention also to gene interaction, the organism, and its environment, in face of the acute threat against evolutionary biology from reductionist molecular biology. In the early...

Disease

Disease   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
9,315 words
Illustration(s):
1

...System ; Influenza ; Malaria ; Myxomatosis ; Nutrition and Disease ; Plagues and Epidemics ; Red Queen Hypothesis ; Resistance, Cost of ; Sex, Evolution of ; Transmission Dynamics ; Vaccination ; and Virulence . Hereditary Disease After suffering from a particularly bad cold, one may wonder why natural selection, in its exquisite ability to render organisms adapted to their environment, has failed to produce an immune system that is capable of keeping away such annoying viral insults. In any population, a diseased state may arise from a wide variety...

Population Dynamics

Population Dynamics   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
4,529 words
Illustration(s):
5

... Alexander Nicholson proposed that density dependence was a necessary requisite for population persistence. This engendered a vociferous debate over the role of random fluctuations in birth and death rates versus density-dependent processes. This culminated at a meeting at the Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology in 1957 . Nicholson and proponents advocated the role of density dependence as the process by which populations are able to persist. Andrewartha , Birch , and Milne contested this point, arguing that density-independent factors...

Human Sociobiology and Behavior

Human Sociobiology and Behavior   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...of ways in which human beings evolved traits that aid in expanding the sphere of cooperation is to explore the role of commitments as social strategies. This idea was developed initially by game theorists who were not concerned with evolution. Thomas Schelling , analyzing the Cold War, noted that a firm commitment to retaliate against a preemptive first strike could deter such a first strike even though it could not save the victim and might even, in a nuclear exchange, make the victim's situation worse. A commitment to retaliate, even if it were destructive...

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