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Cold War

Subject: History

The antagonism between the USA and USSR lasting from the late 1940s until the late 1980s, ‘cold’ because it was waged through diplomatic and ideological means rather than force. Britain ...

Cold War

Cold War   Reference library

Norman Davies

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

... War . Although the term was not generally used until the 1950s, historians of the Cold War have traced its origins to the strains of the Grand Alliance from 1941 onwards. Both Churchill and Roosevelt agreed that the western powers must sink their differences with Stalin for the duration of the war against Germany: and western propaganda went to great lengths to conceal the crimes of their Soviet ally. Stalin's contribution to the Allied war effort was so immense that he could flout the Atlantic Charter almost at will, and could gain acceptance of the...

cold war

cold war   Reference library

The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

... war 1 a state of international tension wherein political, economic, technological, sociological, psychological, paramilitary, and military measures short of overt armed conflict involving regular military forces are employed to achieve national objectives. 2 ( the Cold War ) the state of political hostility that existed between the Soviet bloc countries and the U.S.-led Western powers from 1945 to 1990...

Cold War

Cold War   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...bad job, but the floodgates burst and the fall of the Berlin wall in 1989 is regarded as the end of the Cold War. The Warsaw Pact and the USSR broke up, leaving the successor state Russia to thrash about in search of a new purpose, and a triumphant NATO to develop interventionist policies it would never have dared to pursue previously. This has confirmed fears of ‘encirclement’ in Russia and it is not unimaginable that this could evolve into a new Cold War. Christopher...

Cold War

Cold War   Reference library

Fred Halliday

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,405 words

... War The term “Cold War” is used to describe the protracted conflict between the Soviet and Western worlds that, while falling short of “hot” war, nonetheless involved a comprehensive military, political, and ideological rivalry from the end of World War II through the early 1990 s. The phrase entered the modern political vocabulary after World War II, as a description, popularized by the columnist Walter Lippmann , of the conflict between the Soviet and Western blocs. It was initially used to describe a historical period—the Cold War—that began with the...

Cold War

Cold War   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sports Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
149 words

...ideologies. In sport, the history of the Olympics in the second half of the 20th century was dominated by Cold War strategies and rivalries, and sport systems in both ideological blocs were fostered and supported in order to prepare Cold War warriors for the battlefields of international...

Cold War

Cold War   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,388 words

... War . The term “Cold War” is used to describe the protracted conflict between the Soviet and Western worlds that, while falling short of “hot” war, nonetheless involved a comprehensive military, political, and ideological rivalry from the end of World War II to the early 1990s. It entered modern political vocabulary after World War II, as a description, popularized by the columnist Walter Lippmann , of the conflict between the Soviet and Western blocs. It was initially used to describe a historical period—the Cold War—that began with the breakdown of the...

Cold War

Cold War   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
268 words

... War The aggressive ideological stand-off between Western allies and the Soviet Union and its satellites that operated from the end of the Second World War until the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991 ( see West ). As the Second World War ended, divergent visions for post-war Europe emerged. The Western allies sought reconstruction within a framework of democracy and capitalism, which sought to limit the rise of communism , both in Europe and around the world. The Soviet Union wanted to advance socialism, propagate communist ideology, and to foster...

Cold War

Cold War   Quick reference

Peter Byrd

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,258 words

...communism and to expand American power throughout Europe, the Middle East, and the Far East. Some writers in this category thus trace the Cold War back to American opposition to the 1917 Russian Revolution. Of course, many accounts weave together two or even all three of these broad categories. In the 1980s there was a short‐lived but intensive reawakening of the Cold War, sometimes called the New Cold War. Détente petered out in the late 1970s, arms control faltered, and in December 1979 the Soviet Union occupied Afghanistan . From 1980 onwards...

Cold War

Cold War  

Dictionary of the Social Sciences

Reference type:
Subject Reference

... War Sustained competition and conflict between states that stop short of major military confrontation. In practice, the term is used almost exclusively to refer to the standoff between the United States and the Soviet Union in the post–World War II era. This rivalry took place on several levels: ideology; economic competition; a massive conventional and nuclear arms race ; and proxy wars and other “limited” military conflicts in client states. Two views of the origins of the Cold War have been prominent in academic discussions. Traditionalists place the...

Cold War

Cold War   Reference library

Fred Halliday

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,412 words

... War The term “Cold War” is used to describe the protracted conflict between the Soviet and Western worlds that, while falling short of “hot” war, nonetheless involved a comprehensive military, political, and ideological rivalry from the end of World War II to the early 1990s. It entered modern political vocabulary after World War II, as a description, popularized by the columnist Walter Lippmann, of the conflict between the Soviet and Western blocs. It was initially used to describe a historical period—the Cold War—that began with the breakdown of the...

Cold War

Cold War   Reference library

Oxford Companion to Australian Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,487 words

...Foreign Policy (3rd edn) Firth, Stewart (2005), Australia in International Politics: An Introduction to Australian Foreign Policy Lewis Gaddis, John (2005), The Cold War: A New History Love, Peter (2001), ‘Australia's Cold War’, in Peter Love and Paul Strangio (eds), Arguing the Cold War Lowe, David (1999), Menzies and the ‘Great World Struggle’: Australia's Cold War,...

Cold War

Cold War   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
13,929 words

...the 1970s other views have emerged that have integrated economics into the framework of the Cold War and have attempted to balance the two versions. These so-called post-revisionists tend to place blame on both sides, citing misunderstandings between the two sides as a cause of the Cold War. Finally, the Realist school views the Cold War to be a result of the emergence of a bipolar world, proposing that the Cold War was therefore inevitable. With the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet system, interpretations reflecting earlier traditional...

second Cold War

second Cold War   Reference library

The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

...Cold War the period from the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979 to the Reykjavik summit in 1986 , during which time President Ronald Reagan increased military spending and actively sought U.S. dominance of the Soviet...

Cold War, the

Cold War, the   Reference library

Emily Abrams Ansari

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,530 words

... War, the . The Cold War was a political, ideological, and military conflict between Communist and Western nations that began around 1947 and ended with the dissolution of the USSR in 1991 . The USSR and the United States were the principal adversaries, both superpowers after World War II. Each funded many proxy wars during this period, but because of their nuclear capabilities never fought each other directly, thereby creating alternating periods of high tension and relative calm. The Cold War's only consistent feature was thus the ideological conflict...

Cold War (1945–1991)

Cold War (1945–1991)   Reference library

David F. Schmitz, Zachary Karabell, William H. Chafe, Jonathan Nashel, and David Milne

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...the Cold War . Updated ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005. Gardner, Lloyd . Spheres of Influence . Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 1993. Hanhimaki, Jussi , and Odd Arne Westad , eds. The Cold War: A History in Documents and Eyewitness Accounts . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. Harper, John Lamberton . The Cold War . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011. LaFeber, Walter . America, Russia, and the Cold War . 7th ed. New York: McGraw–Hill, 1993. Leffler, Melvyn . For the Soul of Mankind: The United States, the Soviet Union, and the Cold War . New...

Cold War (1945–91)

Cold War (1945–91)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...the Grand Alliance and brought about the Cold War. [See also Russia, U.S. Military Involvement in, 1917–20 ; Russia, U.S. Military Involvement in, 1921–95. ] John Lewis Gaddis , The United States and the Origins of the Cold War, 1941–1947 , 1972. Daniel Yergin , Shattered Peace: The Origins of the Cold War and the National Security State , 1977. Thomas Paterson , On Every Front: The Making of the Cold War , 1979. Fraser Harbutt , The Iron Curtain: Churchill, American and the Origins of the Cold War , 1986. Michael Hogan , The Marshall Plan ,...

Cold War and Africa

Cold War and Africa (1945–1989)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...of the Cold War The costs of African conflicts during the Cold War can be estimated in a variety of ways. Loss of lives, including those by war-related famines, is the most obvious. Between 1945 and 1989 , African wars related to the Cold War took the lives of about 5.5 million people, mostly civilians. More difficult to assess are economic, social, and cultural losses due to the overall devastation of the country. Civilian populations, especially farmers and other food producers, were often the primary victims. In many countries Cold War conflicts...

The End of Bipolarism and the Post–Cold War World

The End of Bipolarism and the Post–Cold War World   Reference library

Vidya Nadkarni

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,743 words

...and chronology of the Cold War are contested; and the contours of the post–Cold War era are variously delineated. Mindful of these controversies, this essay uses the formulations “Cold War era” and “post–Cold War era” as terms conventionally used to refer to historical periods rather than to imply uniformity in the nature of the US–Soviet relationship during the first period, or the character of the US relationship with other major powers since that time. The way in which the Cold War ended had important consequences for the post–Cold War world. The unilateral...

second Cold War

second Cold War  

The period from the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979 to the Reykjavik summit in 1986, during which time President Ronald Reagan increased military spending and actively sought U.S. dominance of ...
Cold War and Africa

Cold War and Africa  

Ideological and political confrontation between the United States and the Communist Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), which lasted from 1945–1989 and had major effects on African ...

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