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Cold War

Subject: History

The antagonism between the USA and USSR lasting from the late 1940s until the late 1980s, ‘cold’ because it was waged through diplomatic and ideological means rather than force. Britain ...

Goldilocks effect

Goldilocks effect n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... Beth B(owman) Hess ( 1928–2003 ) and Joan M. Waring (born 1943 ) in a chapter in a book entitled Child Influences on Marital and Family Interaction ( 1978 ), referring to the optimal level of contact with kin that satisfies married people without interfering with their marital relationship. See also anthropic principle . [From the episode in the fairy tale Goldilocks and the Three Bears when Goldilocks tastes the porridge of the small bear and finds it ‘neither too hot nor too cold, but just right; and she liked it so well that she ate it...

Characteristics, Mechanisms, and Health Implications of Exercise-Induced Hypoalgesia

Characteristics, Mechanisms, and Health Implications of Exercise-Induced Hypoalgesia   Reference library

Laura D. Ellingson and Christopher D. Black

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
9,381 words
Illustration(s):
1

...amplitude a person is willing to tolerate. Studies have also employed ratings of pain intensity and pain unpleasantness to thermal stimuli, often by applying multiple suprathreshold temperatures ( Ellingson, Koltyn, Kim, & Cook,, 2014 ) or using prolonged cold water submersion, known as the cold pressor task ( Foxen-Craft & Dahlquist, 2017 ). When assessed in this manner, EIH manifests as a reduction in the ratings of intensity and unpleasantness to a given temperature. Effects of Type, Intensity, and Duration of Exercise on EIH EIH has been shown to occur...

Psychological Resilience and Adversarial Growth in Sport and Performance

Psychological Resilience and Adversarial Growth in Sport and Performance   Reference library

David Fletcher

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
15,149 words
Illustration(s):
1

...needs to be considered contextually and defined in relation to the general population and/or the subpopulation of athletes. To elaborate and illustrate, although a common cold is likely to be a stressor for most people it is unlikely to be considered an adversity, whereas for an elite athlete about to perform in the most important competition of his or her life, a common cold is likely to elicit a significant negative response in most elite athletes and therefore would meet the criteria for an adversity in this subpopulation. Early Life Versus Later Career...

History of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology in North America

History of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology in North America   Reference library

Vincent J. Granito

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...with historical examination of any profession: being influenced by the context of the general history in which the event took place. For example, in the 1960s, when sport psychology experienced its greatest growth spurt, North American history was being heavily shaped by the Cold War and its rivalry with the Soviet Union. During this time, the progression of sport psychology, especially in the United States, was spurred on by the superior approach of Russian sport psychologists that culminated in the success of Soviet athletes at the 1976 Olympic Games (...

homeostasis

homeostasis   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
294 words

...principle before it was properly recognized by engineers, though it had been used as it were implicitly, without recognition or understanding. Cannon explained the regulation of body temperature by mechanisms such as perspiring when the body is too hot and shivering when it is too cold, as maintaining the body's equilibrium by feedback signals from what is needed to how what is needed can be attained. It is now clear that this is an extremely important principle for almost all physiological processes, and also for the guiding of skilled behaviour. (Published...

skills, memory for

skills, memory for   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,148 words

...one possible interpretation is as follows. One source of forgetting is that of retroactive interference. A person learns to associate a particular stimulus with a particular response or action: for example, he learns that a bathroom tap with the letter C on it is likely to produce cold water if turned on. After a while such an association will become relatively automatic. If the situation then changes—for example, if he goes on holiday to Italy where C stands for caldo , ‘hot’—then he will probably make a number of mistakes before adjusting. On returning to...

Chinese ideas of the mind

Chinese ideas of the mind   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,144 words

...commonly held animistic modes of thinking—devils and spirits were thought to be able to possess the human body and soul and thus produce physical, behavioural, and social disorders. These supernatural factors were soon paralleled by the concept of natural factors such as cold, heat, wind, drought, and humidity affecting the human body in much the same way. Confucians, on the other hand, created a highly rational, though metaphysical, system of thought characterized by numerology and what may be termed ‘correlative’ thinking. Objects and phenomena in...

thinkers, independent

thinkers, independent   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,148 words

...globe; the sun is in the middle, with Australia and Britain on opposite sides, while the solid ground below our feet extends infinitely in all directions. Such examples of independent thought could be multiplied almost ad infinitum . There are those who believe the sun to be cold; those who fear that the accumulation of ice at the North Pole will make the world tilt over, producing disastrous floods; and those who have a profound disbelief in evolution, preferring to think that each species appears fully fledged as if by magic. Few of these people have any...

Goldilocks effect

Goldilocks effect  

A term applicable to any phenomenon that depends on narrowly constrained conditions for its occurrence, especially life on earth, the evolution of which depends on the earth's orbit remaining within ...
asylums: are they really necessary?

asylums: are they really necessary?   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,335 words

...George at home on our home life has been disastrous’ typifies several examples of the way one schizophrenic can wreck the social life of an entire family. ‘I do not think “the community” exists’ is the sad reflection of a mother whose daughter has encountered ‘the sneers, no job, cold shouldering, impatience and general feeling of being out of step’. ‘I have found that every hospital wants to discharge my son at the first opportunity’ is a wry comment on the administrative policy obtaining in so many mental hospitals today. ‘There is, therefore, virtually...

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