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Cold War

Subject: History

The antagonism between the USA and USSR lasting from the late 1940s until the late 1980s, ‘cold’ because it was waged through diplomatic and ideological means rather than force. Britain ...

front

front   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...front. Different types of front are distinguished according to the nature of the air masses separated by the front, the direction of the front’s advance, and the stage of development. The term was first devised during World War I by the Norwegian school of meteorologists (headed by Professor V. Bjerknes ). See also anafront ; cold front ; katafront ; occluded front ; polar front ; warm front...

Muller, Hermann Joseph

Muller, Hermann Joseph   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...Auerbach , in her studies in the 1940s on nitrogen mustard and other alkylating agents, confirmed Muller's suspicion that chemicals would be good mutagens. Muller applied his knowledge of genetics to advocate radiation protection in industry, medicine, and the military. Cold war politics and Muller's earlier history as a Communist sympathizer made it difficult for him to convince professionals that radiation safety was more than political propaganda. No one disputed the dangers of high doses of radiation. At issue were smaller doses. Muller's chief...

Lamarckism

Lamarckism   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...practitioners would be repressed. Under the direction of Trofim Lysenko , Lamarckian ideas flourished and were applied to agriculture. The consequences were disastrous, and Western scientists saw the approach as at best methodologically unsound and at worst fraudulent. As the cold war intensified, Lamarckism, which had little experimental evidence to support it and no plausible mechanisms to explain it, became more and more suspect in the West. Its last stronghold in the 1940s was in bacteriology. The discovery that after a lengthy lag period, bacteria...

Race

Race   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...and even hair morphology. Human trunk and limb morphology does follow regularities observed in other species: in colder climates, bodies are less elongated and limbs are relatively shorter. The compact short-limbed morphologies in cold climates dissipate less heat. The arguments that visible traits have been shaped by adaptation to the environment are shaky and unconvincing. For example there are both very light people and very dark people in cold, cloudy regions (Sweden and Tasmania, respectively). A clear dismissal of this tradition of speculation is given...

Agriculture

Agriculture   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
6,017 words
Illustration(s):
1

...) in the Levant. The earliest known villages probably were established during a cold period, which was followed by a long period of greater warmth. During this warm period, wild rice would have been able to colonize lakes and marshes of the lower and middle Yangtze. Sedentary communities appear to have developed at this time. Early agriculture communities, such as Pengtoushan, which appears to have been cultivating rice by 7,800 years ago, were established in the succeeding cold period. This period would have seen declines in wild grasses, similar to those in...

Heterozygote Advantage

Heterozygote Advantage   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
4,349 words
Illustration(s):
6

...warm days versus dark, chilly nights, or alternations of pure salt versus brackish water in a coastal marsh. An excellent empirical example of this reversal of fitnesses ( Vrijenhoek , 1996 ) is seen in the fitnesses of the fish Peociliopsis monacha between stresses imposed by cold and heat exacerbated by low oxygen (Figure 1). When two or more selective events are chained in this way and alternate homozygotes are favored during successive selective events, heterozygous advantage may accumulate (Mitton, 1997 ; Gillespie , 1991 ). Table 3. Heterozygous...

Neo-Darwinism

Neo-Darwinism   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...biology, and physiology, however, remained “unsynthesized.” In 1952 , Conrad Waddington , supported by Haldane, criticized the narrow focus on mathematical genetics. He later published his own views in The Strategy of the Genes ( 1957 ). In 1959 , at a Darwin celebration at Cold Spring Harbor, Mayr followed this up, pleading with those he called “bean-bag” geneticists to pay attention also to gene interaction, the organism, and its environment, in face of the acute threat against evolutionary biology from reductionist molecular biology. In the early...

Disease

Disease   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
9,315 words
Illustration(s):
1

...System ; Influenza ; Malaria ; Myxomatosis ; Nutrition and Disease ; Plagues and Epidemics ; Red Queen Hypothesis ; Resistance, Cost of ; Sex, Evolution of ; Transmission Dynamics ; Vaccination ; and Virulence . Hereditary Disease After suffering from a particularly bad cold, one may wonder why natural selection, in its exquisite ability to render organisms adapted to their environment, has failed to produce an immune system that is capable of keeping away such annoying viral insults. In any population, a diseased state may arise from a wide variety...

Population Dynamics

Population Dynamics   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
4,529 words
Illustration(s):
5

... Alexander Nicholson proposed that density dependence was a necessary requisite for population persistence. This engendered a vociferous debate over the role of random fluctuations in birth and death rates versus density-dependent processes. This culminated at a meeting at the Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology in 1957 . Nicholson and proponents advocated the role of density dependence as the process by which populations are able to persist. Andrewartha , Birch , and Milne contested this point, arguing that density-independent factors...

Human Sociobiology and Behavior

Human Sociobiology and Behavior   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...of ways in which human beings evolved traits that aid in expanding the sphere of cooperation is to explore the role of commitments as social strategies. This idea was developed initially by game theorists who were not concerned with evolution. Thomas Schelling , analyzing the Cold War, noted that a firm commitment to retaliate against a preemptive first strike could deter such a first strike even though it could not save the victim and might even, in a nuclear exchange, make the victim's situation worse. A commitment to retaliate, even if it were destructive...

Herrings and Anchovies

Herrings and Anchovies   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Underwater Life

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
1,355 words
Illustration(s):
5

... ad salted herring were exported from East Anglia in England to the Frisian Islands; the fisheries even appear in Domesday Book ( 1086 ). The great advantage of this herring (and others) was that it could be preserved in a variety of ways: pickled in brine, salted, or hot and cold smoked (either salted first and split or not, resulting variously in kippers and red herrings). These preservation techniques were devised to keep fish edible before the advent of freezing and canning. Herrings spawn in shoals in the warmer months, laying a mat of sticky eggs on...

Gorillas

Gorillas   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Mammals (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
6,328 words
Illustration(s):
7

...identified as Homo heidelbergensis , is most likely the one responsible for the development of sophisticated Acheulean (hand axe) technology, and possibly for fire. Certainly it is found in much colder and more northerly environments. There was also still a process of divergence and local adaptation, with the European lineage evolving into Neanderthals, a cold-adapted species with features such as large noses, heavy body build, and robust limbs, and the African one becoming the ancestors of modern humans. The first fossil evidence for our own species comes...

Sea Anemones and Jellyfishes

Sea Anemones and Jellyfishes   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Underwater Life

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
4,866 words
Illustration(s):
12

...swimming bells that propel the entire colony (for example, Muggiaea, Nectalia ); 2 gas-filled flotation bells (for example, the Portuguese man-of-war – Physalia physalis ); 3 bracts, which play either a supportive or protective role, or both; 4 medusa buds. Freed from the substrate, these colonies are able to reach large sizes with, for example, the trailing colonial stemwork of the Portuguese man-of-war often extending for several meters below the apical float. Such colonies are capable of paralyzing and ingesting relatively large prey items, such as...

Tarpons, Bonefishes, and Eels

Tarpons, Bonefishes, and Eels   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Underwater Life

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
8,106 words
Illustration(s):
13

...just one or a few specimens. In addition, there is the problem of matching the known leptocephali with the known adults. The larvae of European eels ( Anguilla anguilla ) hatch in the Sargasso Sea and then drift back in the Gulf Stream and take about three years to reach the colder, shallower, and fresher European coastal waters. Here they shrink slightly, metamorphose into elvers and move upstream, where they grow and feed until, some years later, the urge to migrate comes upon them. The American eel ( A. rostrata ) breeds in the western part of the Sargasso...

True Seals

True Seals   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Mammals (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
13,702 words
Illustration(s):
9

...a stable ice platform that forms in early winter. The small body size of the adults and the semialtricial pups are unusual adaptations to cold, allowing the seals to use shelters that they construct in the snow overlying their breathing holes. These small snow caves hide them from predators, especially polar bears and arctic foxes. It appears that pups still wearing their lanugo, or birth coat, can withstand the arctic cold without shelter, but pups that have been wetted become hypothermic and require shelter to regain a stable body temperature. Since female...

Rorquals

Rorquals   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Mammals (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
4,245 words
Illustration(s):
5

...gather information on such features as dive profiles. Tagging has also yielded a mass of data on local movements within feeding and breeding grounds. The seismic shift in superpower relations in the 1990s brought an added bonus to researchers tracking humpback whales. During the Cold War, the US Navy secretly installed an extensive array of hydrophones on many ocean basins to follow the movement of Soviet submarines. Data collected by these listening devices were telemetered back to central sites, enabling sound sources to be monitored over enormous ranges. This...

Rodents

Rodents   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Mammals (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
8,136 words
Illustration(s):
8

...providing the lemmings with the best chances for survival ( see Voles and Lemmings ). In Britain, Norway rats may live in fields during the warm summer months when food is plentiful, and they seldom reach economically important numbers; but after harvest, with the onset of cold weather, they move into buildings. Also in Britain, and some other western European countries, the long-tailed field mouse ( Apodemus sylvaticus ), normally only a pest in the winter when it may for example nibble stored apples, has learned to locate, probably by smell, pelleted...

Fish, What is a?

Fish, What is a?   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Underwater Life

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
8,201 words
Illustration(s):
16

...enough individuals must have survived to be able to rebuild the population, albeit to a lower level. The cause of this carnage is uncertain, but it is believed that ocean currents changed and the warm water in which the tile fish lived was rapidly replaced by an upwelling of deep, cold water in which they died. Although many fish species undergo natural variations in abundance, for no matter what reason, a major natural disaster can affect them all. Should the population be at a low level at such a time, the chance of extinction, and the loss of a resource,...

Whales & Dolphins

Whales & Dolphins   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Mammals (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
8,931 words
Illustration(s):
11

...heat exchangers, maintaining a heat differential between oppositely directed flows and so increasing the amount of heat transferred. Such heat exchangers in the flippers, flukes, and fins serve to conserve body temperature, the arteries being closely surrounded by veins. Cold blood from the veins extracts heat from the arterial blood coming from the body core, so that the blood returning to the body is warmed and heat loss is consequently minimized. Countercurrent heat exchangers also exist close to male genitalia, to cool the testes, and in gray...

cold exposure

cold exposure   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Body

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
1,683 words

...in body core temperature from any cause is rare, and is not an important cause of death in urban populations except at times of war or natural disasters when housing is damaged, people are living rough, and food supplies are disrupted. It has recently become clear that the shutting down of blood flow to the skin, which is the normal first defence against cold, can explain some of the large numbers of deaths that are associated with cold weather. The blood volume has to be reduced to prevent the blood that was displaced from the skin from overloading the...

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