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Cold War

Subject: History

The antagonism between the USA and USSR lasting from the late 1940s until the late 1980s, ‘cold’ because it was waged through diplomatic and ideological means rather than force. Britain ...

World War II and Cold War

World War II and Cold War   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
1,192 words

...War II and Cold War . The blurring of boundaries between scientists, engineers, and the military was crucial to Allied success in World War II and remained a key feature of the Cold War. As a consequence, science was increasingly pulled toward engineering and technology during the latter part of the twentieth century. Although gas attacks were widely anticipated at the outset of World War II, it became less a chemist's than a physicist's war. Despite use of gases by the Italians in Ethiopia ( 1935–1936 ), the Japanese in China ( 1937–1945 ), and the Germans...

Berkner, Lloyd

Berkner, Lloyd (1905–1967)   Reference library

Hugh Richard Slotten

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...period, he worked on the installation of an automatic ionospheric sounder. During World War II, Berkner, a naval reserve officer, supervised aviation electronics engineering with the Radio and Engineering Group within the Engineering division of the U.S. Navy’s Bureau of Aeronautics, including the procurement of newly developed radar systems for naval aircraft. This national security involvement continued after the war. Berkner played a major role during the Cold War using the resources of the national security state to advance science and engineering....

military, the, And technology

military, the, And technology   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...again. War became technophilic; in love with any new and potential weapons. World War I introduced tanks, planes, radios, trucks, and submarines to total war. These technologies proved to be incredibly important in World War II, along with such new “wizard weapons” as radar, missiles, and computers. Finally, at the height of World War II, weapons of mass destruction ( WMD ) were developed, destroying modern war's core logic. Total war was no longer possible. Some weapons, at least in some forms, became for most people too horrible to use. The Cold War that...

Muller, Hermann J.

Muller, Hermann J. (1890–1967)   Reference library

Jenny Bangham

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...and Muller left the Soviet Union—first for the Spanish Civil War and then for a research job in Edinburgh. At the outbreak of World War II, Muller moved once again back to the United States, where, helped by the Rockefeller Foundation and many eminent and sympathetic colleagues, he finally joined the staff of Indiana University, where he remained for the rest of his career. The atomic age brought new attention to Muller’s genetic research and political activism. Although embroiled in Cold War politics—on one hand an outspoken critic of Stalin and on the...

Atomic Energy Commission

Atomic Energy Commission   Reference library

J. Samuel Walker

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... ( 1899–1981 ), a former director of the Tennessee Valley Authority, became its first chairman. As the Cold War progressed, the agency focused its resources on weapons, expanding the U.S. stockpile, and, after January 1950 , undertaking a crash program to build a hydrogen bomb. The agency’s military emphasis proved a source of frustration and disappointment for Lilienthal, whose interests lay in the nonmilitary uses of atomic energy. But Cold War tensions and the still-rudimentary state of the technology prevented major strides in civilian applications....

Conant, James B.

Conant, James B. (1893–1978)   Reference library

Peter J. Kuznick and Hugh Richard Slotten

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...fearing the nuclear destruction of civilization, Conant sought international control of atomic weapons, opposed development of the hydrogen bomb, and questioned the benefits of nuclear power. A typical Cold War liberal, he championed expanded defense spending and military preparedness while nevertheless opposing the militarization of academic research and trying to shield academia from McCarthyism. Although he defended civil liberties, he believed that Communist teachers should be banned from America’s schools. From 1946 to 1962 , Conant served as...

War and Medicine

War and Medicine   Reference library

Dale Smith

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...in a war zone is only one area illustrating such changing social expectations. In American history the various relationships between war and medicine illustrate these changing expectations at both the individual and the social level. Not surprisingly, wars in which a high percentage of the practicing physicians were mobilized, for example, the Civil War and World War II, had profound impacts on American medicine; the Doctor Draft of the middle quarter of the twentieth century was perhaps a Cold War proxy of a high-mobilization war. That wars in which...

Lawrence, Ernest O.

Lawrence, Ernest O. (1901–1958)   Reference library

Robert W. Seidel

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...big physics, with its large laboratories; collaborative, interdisciplinary teams of scientists and engineers; and massive particle accelerators and detectors. His abilities and enthusiasm made him one of the most influential scientists in the United States during the World War II and Cold War eras. He died shortly after returning from the 1958 Geneva Conference on nuclear arms control. [ See also Atomic Energy Commission ; Manhattan Project ; Military, Science and Technology and the ; National Laboratories ; Nobel Prize in Biomedical Research ; Nuclear...

Military, Science and Technology and The

Military, Science and Technology and The   Reference library

Michael Aaron Dennis

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... Kleinman, Daniel Lee , and Mark Solovey . “Hot Science/Cold War: The National Science Foundation after World War II.” Radical History Review 63 (1995): 110–139. Kohler, Robert E. Partners in Science: Foundations and Natural Scientists, 1900–1945 . Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991. Leslie, Stuart W. The Cold War and American Science: The Military–Industrial–Academic Complex at MIT and Stanford . New York: Columbia University Press, 1993. Lowen, Rebecca S. Creating the Cold War University: The Transformation of Stanford . Berkeley:...

Diplomacy (Post-1945), Science and Technology AND

Diplomacy (Post-1945), Science and Technology AND   Reference library

John Krige

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Afghan Airlines, Modernization and the Cold War.” History and Technology 25, no. 1 (2009): 3–24. Wang, Zuoyue . “Transnational Science during the Cold War: The Case of Chinese/American Scientists.” Isis 101, no. 2 (2010): 367–377. Westad, Odd Arne . The Global Cold War. Third World Interventions and the Making of Our Times . Cambridge, Mass.: Cambridge University Press, 2007. The first major history to define the Cold War in global terms. Westad, Odd Arne . “The New International History of the Cold War: Three (Possible) Paradigms.” Diplomatic...

Condon, Edward

Condon, Edward (1902–1974)   Reference library

Thomas C. Lassman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...federal research agencies and rigid civil service requirements, however, frustrated Condon’s plans, forcing him to rely on the military departments for institutional support. The permanent military preparedness and national security policies that accompanied the onset of the Cold War allowed Condon to access resources otherwise not available to the Bureau of Standards, but he did so at considerable professional and personal cost. Condon’s association with Wallace bolstered critics on the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC), who had first publicly...

Killian, James Rhyne, Jr.

Killian, James Rhyne, Jr. (1904–1988)   Reference library

Zuoyue Wang

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...technology, and educational policy during the Cold War despite his lack of advanced training in science or technology. Born in Blacksburg, South Carolina, Killian went to MIT and received a bachelor’s degree in management in 1926 . He started his career at the MIT magazine Technology Review after graduation, becoming editor in 1930 . In 1939 he became executive assistant to the institute’s physicist president Karl Compton, worked as the liaison between the institute and the radar-making Rad Lab during World War II, and eventually succeeded Compton in ...

Office of Scientific Research and Development

Office of Scientific Research and Development   Reference library

Michael Aaron Dennis

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...overwhelming desire to end the OSRD, researchers and government officials would often call for a new OSRD at various crisis points in the early Cold War. [ See also Bush, Vannevar ; Conant, James B. ; Engineering ; Manhattan Project ; Military, Science and Technology and the ; Penicillin ; Physics ; Research and Development (R&D) ; Science ; Sexually Transmitted Diseases ; Technology ; and War and Medicine . ] Bibliography Baxter, James Phinney . Scientists against Time . Boston: Little, Brown, 1946. The original history of the wartime agency;...

Physics

Physics   Reference library

Benjamin Wilson and David Kaiser

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...than basic research per se and were managed on tight timelines to ensure usefulness during the war effort. The Cold War. Physics in the United States looked quite different after World War II than before it. Riding on the heels of the wartime projects, physics became the fastest-growing academic field in the country. Undergraduate and graduate-level enrollments in all fields, from history and literature to economics and sociology, grew exponentially after the war, aided by programs like the GI Bill; but graduate-level enrollments in physics doubled nearly...

Social Sciences

Social Sciences   Reference library

Mark C. Smith and Mark Solovey

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Science Nexus in Cold War America . New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 2013. Analyzes the development of a largely new extra-university funding system for the social sciences in the early Cold War period, with the military, the Ford Foundation, and the National Science Foundation as key patrons. Solovey, Mark , and Hamilton Cravens , eds. Cold War Social Science: Knowledge Production, Liberal Democracy, and Human Nature . New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012. Examines how the social sciences’ Cold War entanglements shaped the...

International Geophysical Year

International Geophysical Year   Reference library

Angelina Callahan

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...scientific data. The United States and the Soviet Union offered to set up World Data Center repositories from which researchers could collect, analyze, and publish observations. In light of this, much ado was made of the virtues of scientific cooperation and the possibility of a Cold War détente. Yet contrary to what the popular press often implied, IGY scientists represented not their national governments but their respective scientific institutions, nor did the exchange of scientific data necessitate consolidation of national scientific programs. Indeed,...

National Academy of Sciences

National Academy of Sciences   Reference library

Daniel Lee Kleinman and Hugh Richard Slotten

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Research and Development, which also administered the work of the National Research Council. The National Research Council gradually combined with the National Academy of Sciences after the war. During the Cold War, the academy and the affiliated National Research Council received many contracts to provide advice to the government and thereafter continued to produce reports on a wide range of subjects. For example, from 1947 to 1973 , the academy helped direct the work of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission in Japan, which conducted research on the...

Geophysics

Geophysics   Reference library

Ronald E. Doel

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...methods into the twenty-first century. Expanding Earth Sciences: World War II, the Cold War, and Beyond. Although geophysics was burgeoning in the early twentieth century, even as late as 1945 , as geophysicists H. W. Straley and M. King Hubbert noted, no North American university offered “an advanced geophysical curriculum embracing the eight geophysical branches recognized by the American Geophysical Union” ( AIME Transactions , 1945 , p. 398). Yet advances in geophysics during World War II soon changed this situation. Physical oceanographers had played a...

President’s Science Advisory Committee

President’s Science Advisory Committee   Reference library

Zuoyue Wang

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...predecessor in the Science Advisory Committee of the Office of Defense Mobilization (ODM) in the Executive Office of the President that was established as a response to the outbreak of the Korean War by President Harry S. Truman in 1951 and retained by Eisenhower. Shortly after the launching of Sputnik , which shook American confidence about winning the Cold War with the Soviet Union, this committee met with Eisenhower and persuaded him to appoint a full-time presidential science advisor to help him coordinate government policy involving science and...

World Health Organization

World Health Organization   Reference library

Paul R. Greenough

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...postwar internationalism, Congress in 1948 agreed to underwrite approximately 35 percent of the WHO’s budget. The organization soon became enmeshed in Cold War politics, however. In 1955 , President Dwight D. Eisenhower urged support for international health programs because disease contributed to “the spread of Communism.” The Soviet Union, for its part, brought such contentious issues as the Vietnam War before the WHO. During intervals of détente, however, the superpowers cooperated on major WHO initiatives. A Soviet proposal for eradicating smallpox, for...

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