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Cold War

Subject: History

The antagonism between the USA and USSR lasting from the late 1940s until the late 1980s, ‘cold’ because it was waged through diplomatic and ideological means rather than force. Britain ...

International Institute For Applied Systems Analysis

International Institute For Applied Systems Analysis   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...the Soviet bloc. The substantive focus would be systems analysis and modern management techniques, fields in which the United States led the world and where many believed great gains could be achieved through improving and disseminating American methods. Through the end of the cold war, IIASA maintained a broad research portfolio bringing scholars together for joint studies on demography, energy and natural resources, management, and applied mathematics. In 1991 , members negotiated a new Strategic Plan focused on environmental, technological, and economic...

International Atomic Energy Agency

International Atomic Energy Agency   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

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Current Version:
2005

...130 members. Eisenhower's motivation was to balance the extensive and growing military applications of nuclear energy with a peaceful applications program that would expand the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and, at the same time, present the United States in the intensifying cold war as the leader in its technological applications. It was assumed that the uranium needed to power nuclear reactors was in short supply (in the event quite wrong) so that providing an international mechanism to make uranium available for peaceful uses under controlled conditions...

Revelle, Roger

Revelle, Roger   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

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2005

...19–20. Revelle, R. , et al. Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide. In Restoring the Quality of Our Environment: Report of the Environmental Pollution Panel, President's Science Advisory Committee , pp. 111–133. Washington, D.C.: The White House, 1965. Weart, S. R. Global Warming, Cold War, and the Evolution of Research Plans . Historical Studies in the Physical and Biological Sciences 27 (1997), 319–356. Deborah Cozort...

Popular Culture

Popular Culture   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

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2005

...and Nagasaki. These local catastrophes were immediately and everywhere read as harbingers of a nuclear Armaggedon, of global change at the hands of man on a scale and of a completeness heretofore the exclusive province of the gods. As the Americans locked themselves into a cold-war struggle with the Soviet Union, they began to dig fallout shelters, practice air raid drills, and otherwise indulge the delusional fantasy of Civil Defense: that is, to construct a nationwide underground Ark. In coping with the imminence of catastrophic global change and “the...

Future Studies

Future Studies   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

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Current Version:
2005

...planning methods utilize speculative, but carefully constructed, descriptions of future worlds. All three methodologies arose in the United States in the aftermath of World War II—a time of relatively stable geopolitics and industrial structures. This originating postwar context shaped the early development of the discipline and, later, contributed to its crisis. At the outset of the cold war in the early 1950s, the U.S. military created a number of units dedicated to forecasting future conditions in the Soviet Union. Faced with the prospect of huge defense...

Planetary Atmospheres

Planetary Atmospheres   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

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Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,023 words
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1

...extreme seasonal temperature variations. In midwinter, the polar regions receive no sunlight and become so cold that the carbon dioxide that makes up most of the tenuous atmosphere condenses onto the surface as a dense frost. At the strongly heated summer pole, this frost evaporates back into the atmosphere. As a result, an important part of the Martian global circulation is the “condensation flow” from the warm summer pole to the cold winter pole. The second factor is the large dust storms that develop in some years near the spring pole of Mars. So...

Biotechnology

Biotechnology   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

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Current Version:
2005

...reduce current deleterious impacts of human activities on the environment. It is highly probable that, through the application of biotechnology, many of our current problems associated with environmental degradation will be overcome. Environmental insults associated with the cold war are a worldwide legacy whose costs for correction in the United States alone have been estimated at U.S.$147–300 billion (U.S. Department of Energy, 1998). The costs for similar cleanup in the former Soviet Union and eastern Europe are even greater. It is only through...

Mangroves

Mangroves   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

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Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,529 words
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1

...km 2 ), Australia (11,500 km 2 ), and Nigeria (10,515 km 2 ). The present latitudinal limits of mangroves on the Pacific coasts of the Americas are about 28° north latitude in the Gulf of California but only 3° 30′ south at Tumbes in Peru, where sea temperatures are lowered by the cold Peruvian current. On the Atlantic coast of the Americas they extend north to Florida and the Mississippi delta (Barataria Bay, 29° 20′ north) and south to Florianopolis in Brazil (27° 35′ south). In West Africa they extend north to the Senegal River (16° north) and south to Lobito...

Mangroves

Mangroves   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

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Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,495 words
Illustration(s):
1

...km 2 ), Australia (11,500 km 2 ), and Nigeria (10,515 km 2 ). The present latitudinal limits of mangroves on the Pacific coasts of the Americas are about 28° north latitude in the Gulf of California but only 3° 30' south at Tumbes in Peru, where sea temperatures are lowered by the cold Peruvian current. On the Atlantic coast of the Americas they extend north to Florida and the Mississippi delta (Barataria Bay, 29°20' north) and south to Florianópolis in Brazil (27°35'south). In West Africa they extend north to the Senegal River (16° north) and south to Lobito in...

Nuclear Hazards

Nuclear Hazards   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

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2005

...wastes created by the arms race and commercial nuclear power programs must be stored safely, virtually forever. A disaster at a major high-level radioactive waste storage facility could require the evacuation of enormous areas, and a major nuclear war could end civilized life. Yet for over thirty years of cold war there was a general acceptance by the developed countries of an explicit military strategy of Mutually Assured Destruction. It now seems genuinely “mad” to have actually gambled with the Earth in this manner, yet this doctrine kept the peace because...

Sustainable Growth

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The Oxford Companion to Global Change

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Current Version:
2009

...has repeatedly come to our rescue, it may also prove our ruin. The invention and propagation of weapons of mass destruction, particularly biological and nuclear weapons, give us for the first time the capability to render much of the globe uninhabitable. The end of the Cold War has allayed concerns about nuclear winter, but the reprieve is illusory: in the next few decades many more countries will have nuclear weapons, and nuclear materials will be widely available. [ See Nuclear Winter . ] All these threats are to some degree interlinked. Resource...

Information Technology

Information Technology   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

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2005

...in much of the world. Military applications have driven much of the development of this information technology. IT has played a significant role in conflicts from World War II, in which the English created the special-purpose Colossus to decrypt German military messages prior to D-day, through the cold war, to the decisive victory of the United States–led coalition in the Persian Gulf war. The U.S. government has supported a substantial fraction of all U.S. research conducted in computing, especially in the early years of computing. In 1950 , U.S....

Deserts

Deserts   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

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Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
3,798 words
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1

...closely allied to the notion of aridity, which has four main causal factors: (1) tropical and subtropical atmospheric stability, (2) continentality (or distance from oceans), (3) topographically induced rain shadows, and (4) in some coastal situations such as Chile and Namibia, cold ocean currents reducing evaporation from the sea surface. Scientific definitions of desert have been based on criteria that include the nature and development of drainage systems, the types of rock weathering process that operate, ecological communities, and the potential for...

Deserts

Deserts   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
3,435 words
Illustration(s):
3

...moisture stress. Deserts are characterized primarily by aridity, which has four main causes: tropical and subtropical atmospheric stability; continentality (distance from oceans); topographically induced rain shadows; and, in some coastal situations such as Chile and Namibia, cold ocean currents which limit evaporation from the sea surface. Scientific definitions of desert have been based on criteria that include the nature and development of drainage systems, the prevailing types of rock weathering, ecological communities, and the potential for crop growth...

Migrations

Migrations   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

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Current Version:
2005

...in either origin or destination, the migration is seen to erode the very integrity of the nation-state, the political linchpin of the present world. These diasporic, transnational communities are an important element in the redefinition of the global community in the post–Cold War period. While the transnational mixing of cultures since the 1960s has been most intense in the traditional settler societies, and also in Europe, it has affected the once homogeneous societies of Japan, Korea, and Taiwan. At the other end of the development spectrum, however,...

Air Quality

Air Quality   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

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Current Version:
2005

...remain fixed in the arctic region. The stagnant conditions, the polar winter darkness and cold, and the near total lack of precipitation mean that the normal processes by which air is cleansed are not functioning. Consequently, the pollution remains airborne for an unusually long time, breaking up only with the onset of warmer temperatures at springtime. Arctic haze has built up each year since the Industrial Revolution, but the pace has quickened since World War II. It is of particular concern today because the presence of a sooty haze over the reflecting...

Natural Gas

Natural Gas   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
3,014 words
Illustration(s):
3

...urea ([NH 2 ] 2 CO) and ammonium nitrate (NH 4 NO 3 ). Residential heating and cooking Natural gas is a major fuel in home heating applications, including furnaces, water heaters, and stoves. Most residential natural gas use worldwide occurs in urban areas and largely in the colder climates of North America and Europe. Figure 4 shows how this residential use causes overall natural gas consumption to vary over the course of a year, spiking in winter months and declining during the summer. Increased use of natural gas—as well as other modern heating fuels...

Metals

Metals   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
5,131 words
Illustration(s):
6

...include chromium, cobalt, niobium, nickel, platinum, and tantalum, but titanium, manganese, aluminum, and up to ten others may also appear. The principal concerns in the past have been the availability of these metals for military purposes in wartime. With the ending of the Cold War, concerns have lessened but have not been completely forgotten, because these materials are still vital in a broad range of civilian applications. The U.S. government, like some others, holds significant quantities of these metals in the strategic stockpile in case supplies are...

Urban Areas

Urban Areas   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

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Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
4,604 words
Illustration(s):
2

...was directly reflected in the urban landscape, and most people found the final product uninviting. Socialism of this kind is in its last waning days now, a failed experiment of the twentieth century responding to the excesses of free-market capitalism. With the end of the Cold War, even in those countries such as China or Vietnam where quasisocialist governments still nominally rule but free-market capitalism is being encouraged, former socialist cities are undergoing a transformation, getting a capitalist facelift, and acquiring many of the features...

Extinction of Species

Extinction of Species   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

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2005

...in the Western Hemisphere was signed in 1940 and has now been ratified by about a score of countries that have established parks and wildlife reserves under its authority. [See Conservation .] With the end of World War II, international conservation efforts expanded. Although commercial whaling had virtually ceased during the war, the threatened renewal of large-scale commercial whaling by Japan, Norway, Iceland, and the Soviet Union led to the formation of the International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling. In 1946 the fourteen major...

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