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Cold War

Subject: History

The antagonism between the USA and USSR lasting from the late 1940s until the late 1980s, ‘cold’ because it was waged through diplomatic and ideological means rather than force. Britain ...

liquid oxygen

liquid oxygen   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Space Exploration (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...fuel in order to be able to burn the fuel, there being no oxygen in space. The oxygen and hydrogen (LOX–LH) are in a cryogenic state whose super-coldness turns them into liquids; LOX is chilled to −148 °C. It then expands by a factor of 900 when turned into gas on combustion. US rocket pioneer Robert Goddard used liquid oxygen mixed with petrol for his first liquid-fuelled rocket engine, and Germany's V2 World War II rocket was propelled by liquid oxygen and...

Global Navigation Satellite System

Global Navigation Satellite System   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Space Exploration (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Global Navigation Satellite System ( GLONASS ) A Russian space-based navigational system initially developed for experimental military purposes during the 1970s but applied to commercial applications after the end of the Cold War. The first GLONASS satellite launched in 1982 and the system became fully operational in 1993 ; in 2005 this satellite was decommissioned and, since 2003 , had gradually been replaced with the more evolved GLONASS-M class satellite. Currently the system is comprised of a constellation of 24 satellites (plus three...

Zel'dovich, Yakov

Zel'dovich, Yakov (1914–87)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Cosmology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Science and technology, Astronomy and Cosmology
Length:
1,027 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Soviet Union's highest civilian award, on three separate occasions. He was a member of the Soviet Academy of Sciences from 1958 , and an honorary member of several overseas organizations including the US National Academy of Sciences and the UK Royal Society. However because of Cold War politics, he was not allowed to travel outside the Soviet Bloc until 1982 , aged nearly 70, when he attended a conference in Greece. Scientific terminology is littered with acknowledgements to his contributions. Within cosmology alone, we have the Harrison–Zel'dovich spectrum ...

black holes

black holes   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Cosmology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Science and technology, Astronomy and Cosmology
Length:
1,944 words
Illustration(s):
2

...from a black hole, its gravitational field is no different from that of any other body. For instance, if the Sun was replaced tomorrow by a black hole of the same mass, the Earth would quite happily continue around its orbit as if nothing had happened (it would soon get pretty cold though). The idea that black holes ‘suck things in’ is a common misconception; in fact black holes are so small that it would be quite a challenge to manage to fall into one. However, the strong gravitational field very near a black hole does lead to dramatic effects; for instance...

Valentina Tereshkova

Valentina Tereshkova  

(b. 1937),cosmonaut; the first woman in space. Tereshkova's accomplishments have been overshadowed by caricatures created in the heat of Cold War and gender politics. Soviet sources and feminists ...
liquid oxygen

liquid oxygen  

(LOX)The rocket propellant oxidizer, normally combined with liquid hydrogen. Spacecraft must carry an oxidizer as well as fuel in order to be able to burn the fuel, there being no oxygen in space. ...
NASA

NASA  

The National Aeronautic and Space Administration, the agency of the US federal government that was established under the National Aeronautics and Space Act 1958 to plan, direct, and conduct all US ...

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