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Cold War

Subject: History

The antagonism between the USA and USSR lasting from the late 1940s until the late 1980s, ‘cold’ because it was waged through diplomatic and ideological means rather than force. Britain ...

World War II and Cold War

World War II and Cold War   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
1,192 words

...War II and Cold War . The blurring of boundaries between scientists, engineers, and the military was crucial to Allied success in World War II and remained a key feature of the Cold War. As a consequence, science was increasingly pulled toward engineering and technology during the latter part of the twentieth century. Although gas attacks were widely anticipated at the outset of World War II, it became less a chemist's than a physicist's war. Despite use of gases by the Italians in Ethiopia ( 1935–1936 ), the Japanese in China ( 1937–1945 ), and the Germans...

World War II and Cold War

World War II and Cold War  

Reference type:
Overview Page
The blurring of boundaries between scientists, engineers, and the military was crucial to Allied success in World War II and remained a key feature of the Cold War. As a ...
front

front   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...front. Different types of front are distinguished according to the nature of the air masses separated by the front, the direction of the front’s advance, and the stage of development. The term was first devised during World War I by the Norwegian school of meteorologists (headed by Professor V. Bjerknes ). See also anafront ; cold front ; katafront ; occluded front ; polar front ; warm front...

third world

third world   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...world Originally, a synonym for those nations that aligned themselves with neither the West nor with the Soviet bloc during the Cold War. Today, the term is used to denote nations with the smallest UN Human Development Indices (HDI). There is no objective definition of Third World or ‘Third World country’, and these countries are also referred to as ‘the South’, developing countries, and least developed countries. H. Arendt (1970) argues that ‘the Third World is not a reality but an ideology’. D. H. Aldcroft (2007) refers to ‘Europe’s third world’ when...

Fronts

Fronts   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
3,597 words
Illustration(s):
2

...or triple point, move apart with time. The cyclone reaches maturity with the occlusion stage and weakens thereafter. In the classical concept of the occluded front, if the air behind the cold front is colder and thus denser than the cold air ahead of the warm front, the cold front will undercut the warm front, forming a cold-type occlusion. If the reverse is true, the cold front, upon reaching the warm front, will ride up the warm frontal surface, forming a warm-type occlusion. Various attempts have been made to verify the existence and structure of occluded...

Goldilocks effect

Goldilocks effect n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... Beth B(owman) Hess ( 1928–2003 ) and Joan M. Waring (born 1943 ) in a chapter in a book entitled Child Influences on Marital and Family Interaction ( 1978 ), referring to the optimal level of contact with kin that satisfies married people without interfering with their marital relationship. See also anthropic principle . [From the episode in the fairy tale Goldilocks and the Three Bears when Goldilocks tastes the porridge of the small bear and finds it ‘neither too hot nor too cold, but just right; and she liked it so well that she ate it...

crisp

crisp   Quick reference

The Diner’s Dictionary (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...them potato chips ). The early market leader in Britain was Smith’s crisps, made by a company founded in Cricklewood, in northwest London, by Francis Leigh Smith after the First World War. Its plain unvarnished crisps had a small blue-paper twist of salt inside the packet that enabled eaters to season them to their own taste. After the Second World War Henry Walker, originally a Nottinghamshire butcher, turned his talents to manufacturing crisps in Leicester. Over the following decades, marked by the introduction of flavoured crisps (salt and vinegar, chicken...

Bjerknes, Vilhelm F. K.

Bjerknes, Vilhelm F. K. (1862–1951)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...meteorology, based on concepts of fronts and air masses, marked a turning point in atmospheric science. Vilhelm and Jacob Bjerknes postulated that cyclones are often born along a front—the boundary between relatively warm and cold masses of air. A cold front is one advancing toward warm air; a warm front is one moving toward colder air. Frequently two air masses meet and interact, forming low-pressure centers called cyclones. The several stages of a cyclone—its birth, growth, and decay—can each last for 3 or 4 days. In the early twentieth century, this...

Warfare and Weather

Warfare and Weather   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,453 words
Illustration(s):
1

...with no hope of being delivered. The rasputiza , and especially the cold, caused a loss of momentum for the German offensive. On 6 December, the Battle for Moscow was abandoned by the Germans. This enabled the Soviet army to launch its first major counteroffensive of the war. In the continued fighting, the number of casualties caused by cold increased to such an extent that in the last days of December, the number of German troops lost through frostbite, and other consequences of cold, exceeded the number lost through enemy action. Bibliography Douglas, K....

salad

salad   Quick reference

The Diner’s Dictionary (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...World War services slang). The characteristics it shares with the more usual type of salad are rawness and variety—and it is the notion of profuse variety that lies behind the more metaphorical applications of the word salad in modern times. In an 1893 issue of the New York Nation , for instance, a writer noted that ‘close at hand the building is an entertaining salad of styles’. The expression salad days ‘time of youthful inexperience’ originated in Shakespeare's Anthony and Cleopatra : ‘my salad days, when I was green in judgment, cold in blood’,...

Hare, F. Kenneth

Hare, F. Kenneth (1919–2002)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...a geography department that for several decades exerted a powerful influence on Canadian geography and climatology. The focus was on the Arctic and Subarctic, where the concerns of the Cold War called for great improvement in basic data collection and understanding. For example, until Hare and Margaret Montgomery proved otherwise in 1949 , it was believed that Hudson Bay did not freeze in winter. Research funding, much of it linked to military budgets, flowed to the McGill department. For several decades its graduate students operated a first-order weather...

mango

mango   Quick reference

The Diner’s Dictionary (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...mango was an institution in Britain long before post-Second World War Asian immigration brought the actual fruit to our markets, and the jars of pickled mango that reached Britain from India in the second half of the seventeenth century led to the term mango being adopted for ‘pickle’ in general. John Evelyn, for instance, in his Acetaria ( 1699 ) gave recipes for ‘mangoes’ of walnuts and of cucumbers: ‘Boil [the cucumbers] in the Vinegar with Pepper, Cloves, Mace, &c…And when all is cold, add a good Spoonful of the best Mustard…and you have an excellent...

Cyclones

Cyclones   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
14,580 words
Illustration(s):
7

...indicated that many cyclones were not warm at mid-levels as the thermal theory predicts, but cold. By the early 1900s, the stage was set for one of the most profound developments in meteorology—the polar front theory of cyclones (also called the Norwegian cyclone model). The polar front theory for midlatitude cyclones was developed at the Geophysical Institute in Bergen, Norway, headed by Vilhelm Bjerknes . In a series of landmark papers published just after World War I, Jacob Bjerknes , Halvor Solberg , and Tor Bergeron developed a model for cyclone...

History, Climate, and Weather

History, Climate, and Weather   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,492 words
Illustration(s):
2

...February 1917 , most of European Russia was covered by a snow layer 40 to 50 centimeters or more deep, causing the stranding of some 57,000 rail cars. With nearly 15 million men serving in the armed forces in World War I, there was a shortage of manpower to clear the thousands of kilometers of railroad. Additionally, there was the problem of the cold. On the coldest day of February 1917 , the average temperature was −24.3°C, and on the second coldest day, −22.7°C. Outside the cities, where the “heat island” effects did not operate, temperatures were much lower;...

Jet Stream

Jet Stream   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,012 words
Illustration(s):
2

...and in the wake of a cold front has a frontolytic effect, whereas low-tropospheric convergence ahead of the jet stream would have a frontogenetic effect. Thus, jet streams are a consequence as well as a cause of frontal processes in the atmosphere. It is moot to ask which comes first; instead, one should consider jet streams to be dynamically linked to baroclinic zones in rotating fluid systems through mutual feedback processes. [ See Fronts .] As schematically illustrated in Figure 1 , in the rear of a jet wind maximum, cold air sinks and warm air...

Meteorology

Meteorology   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...of warm and cold fronts—was undiscovered until the 1930s, although some aspiring weather forecasters had unwittingly alluded to these zones of relatively strong horizontal temperature gradients as early as the 1800s. Military strategy in World War I was largely restricted to the realm of trench warfare, and weather played a significant role in the movement and deployment of ground troops. In the immediate aftermath of the war, the Norwegian Jacob Bjerknes conceptualized a battle of cold and warm air masses near a boundary called a front. If cold air marched...

International Institute For Applied Systems Analysis

International Institute For Applied Systems Analysis   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...the Soviet bloc. The substantive focus would be systems analysis and modern management techniques, fields in which the United States led the world and where many believed great gains could be achieved through improving and disseminating American methods. Through the end of the cold war, IIASA maintained a broad research portfolio bringing scholars together for joint studies on demography, energy and natural resources, management, and applied mathematics. In 1991 , members negotiated a new Strategic Plan focused on environmental, technological, and economic...

Nuclear Winter

Nuclear Winter   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,449 words
Illustration(s):
2

...upper atmosphere. These include San Francisco as a result of the earthquake in 1906 , and cities bombed in World War II, including Tokyo, Dresden, Hamburg, Darmstadt, Hiroshima, and Nagasaki. • The seasonal cycle. In the winter, the climate is cooler, because the days are shorter and sunlight is less intense. Again, this helps us quantify the effects of reduction of solar radiation. • The diurnal cycle. At night the Sun sets and it gets cold at the surface. If the Sun did not rise tomorrow, we already have an intuitive feel for how much cooling would...

International Atomic Energy Agency

International Atomic Energy Agency   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...130 members. Eisenhower's motivation was to balance the extensive and growing military applications of nuclear energy with a peaceful applications program that would expand the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and, at the same time, present the United States in the intensifying cold war as the leader in its technological applications. It was assumed that the uranium needed to power nuclear reactors was in short supply (in the event quite wrong) so that providing an international mechanism to make uranium available for peaceful uses under controlled conditions...

Revelle, Roger

Revelle, Roger   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...19–20. Revelle, R. , et al. Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide. In Restoring the Quality of Our Environment: Report of the Environmental Pollution Panel, President's Science Advisory Committee , pp. 111–133. Washington, D.C.: The White House, 1965. Weart, S. R. Global Warming, Cold War, and the Evolution of Research Plans . Historical Studies in the Physical and Biological Sciences 27 (1997), 319–356. Deborah Cozort...

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